SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
☑ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __ to __
Commission File Number 001-08106
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State or other jurisdiction of||(I.R.S. Employer|
|incorporation or organization)||Identification No.)|
|800 S. Douglas Road, 12th Floor|
|(Address of principal executive offices)||(Zip Code)|
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
|Common Stock, $0.10 Par Value||MTZ||New York Stock Exchange|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☑
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262 (b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☑
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐ 1
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐ 1
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act.) Yes ☐ No ☑
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant computed by reference to the price at which the common stock was last sold as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was approximately $4.1 billion, based on the closing price per share for the registrant’s common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2022.
There were 78,791,125 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 8, 2023.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A for the 2023 annual meeting of shareholders is incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K to the extent stated herein.
1 Per SEC guidance, this blank checkbox is included on this cover page but no disclosure with respect thereto shall be made until the adoption and effectiveness of related stock exchange listing standards.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
The Company is making this statement pursuant to the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements described in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. We make statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“this Form 10-K” or this “Annual Report”) and in the documents that we incorporate by reference into this Annual Report that are forward-looking. When used in this Annual Report or in any other presentation, statements which are not historical in nature, including the words “anticipate,” “estimate,” “could,” “should,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “seek,” “expect,” “believe,” “intend,” “target,” “will,” “project,” “forecast,” “continue” and variations of these words and negatives thereof and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. They also include statements regarding:
• our future growth and profitability;
• our competitive strengths; and
• our business strategy and the trends we anticipate in the industries and economies in which we operate.
These forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors, some of which are beyond our control, are difficult to predict, and could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or forecasted in the forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements include:
• market conditions, including levels of inflation, rising interest rates or supply chain issues, technological developments, regulatory or policy changes, including permitting processes and tax incentives that affect us or our customers’ industries;
• the effect of federal, local, state, foreign or tax legislation and other regulations affecting the industries we serve and related projects and expenditures;
•the effect on demand for our services of changes in the amount of capital expenditures by our customers due to, among other things, economic conditions, including the potential adverse effects of potential recessionary concerns, inflationary issues, supply chain disruptions and higher interest rates, the availability and cost of financing, climate-related matters, customer consolidation in the industries we serve and/or the effects of public health matters;
•activity in the industries we serve and the impact on our customers’ expenditure levels caused by fluctuations in commodity prices, including for fuel and energy sources, and/or fluctuations in materials, labor, supplies, equipment and other costs, or supply-related issues that affect availability or cause delays for such items;
• our ability to manage projects effectively and in accordance with our estimates, as well as our ability to accurately estimate the costs associated with our fixed price and other contracts, including any material changes in estimates for completion of projects and estimates of the recoverability of change orders;
•risks related to completed or potential acquisitions, including our ability to integrate acquired businesses within expected timeframes, including their business operations, internal controls and/or systems, which may be found to have material weaknesses, and our ability to achieve the revenue, cost savings and earnings levels from such acquisitions at or above the levels projected, as well as the risk of potential asset impairment charges and write-downs of goodwill;
•our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel, key management and skilled employees, including from acquired businesses, our ability to enforce any noncompetition agreements, and our ability to maintain a workforce based upon current and anticipated workloads;
•any material changes in estimates for legal costs or case settlements or adverse determinations on any claim, lawsuit or proceeding;
• the adequacy of our insurance, legal and other reserves;
•the timing and extent of fluctuations in operational, geographic and weather factors affecting our customers, projects and the industries in which we operate;
•the highly competitive nature of our industry and the ability of our customers, including our largest customers, to terminate or reduce the amount of work, or in some cases, the prices paid for services, on short or no notice under our contracts, and/or customer disputes related to our performance of services and the resolution of unapproved change orders;
•requirements of and restrictions imposed by our credit facility, term loans, senior notes and any future loans or securities;
•the effect of state and federal regulatory initiatives, including risks related to and the costs of compliance with existing and potential future environmental, social and governance requirements, including with respect to climate-related matters;
•our dependence on a limited number of customers and our ability to replace non-recurring projects with new projects;
•risks associated with potential environmental issues and other hazards from our operations;
• disputes with, or failures of, our subcontractors to deliver agreed-upon supplies or services in a timely fashion, and the risk of being required to pay our subcontractors even if our customers do not pay us;
•any exposure resulting from system or information technology interruptions or data security breaches;
•the outcome of our plans for future operations, growth and services, including business development efforts, backlog, acquisitions and dispositions;
•risks related to our strategic arrangements, including our equity investments;
• risks associated with volatility of our stock price or any dilution or stock price volatility that shareholders may experience in connection with shares we may issue as purchase consideration in connection with past or future acquisitions, or as consideration for earn-out obligations or as a result of other stock issuances;
• our ability to obtain performance and surety bonds;
•risks related to our operations that employ a unionized workforce, including labor availability, productivity and relations, as well as risks associated with multiemployer union pension plans, including underfunding and withdrawal liabilities;
•risks associated with operating in or expanding into additional international markets, including risks from fluctuations in foreign currencies, foreign labor and general business conditions and risks from failure to comply with laws applicable to our foreign activities and/or governmental policy uncertainty;
•risks associated with material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and our ability to remediate such weaknesses;
• a small number of our existing shareholders have the ability to influence major corporate decisions; and
• other factors referenced in this Annual Report, including, without limitation, under Item 1. “Business,” Item 1A. “Risk Factors,” Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other factors detailed from time to time in the reports and other filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).
We believe these forward-looking statements are reasonable; however, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based on current expectations. Furthermore, forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. If any of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or if any of our underlying assumptions are incorrect, our actual results may differ significantly from the results that we express in, or imply by, any of our forward-looking statements. These and other risks are detailed in this Form 10-K, in the documents that we incorporate by reference into this Form 10-K and in other documents that we file with the SEC. We do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise these forward-looking statements after the date of this Form 10-K to reflect future events or circumstances, except as required by applicable law. We qualify any and all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary factors.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
We are a leading infrastructure construction company operating mainly throughout North America across a range of industries. Our primary activities include the engineering, building, installation, maintenance and upgrade of communications, energy, utility and other infrastructure, such as: power delivery services, including transmission, distribution, environmental planning and compliance; wireless, wireline/fiber and customer fulfillment activities; power generation, primarily from clean energy and renewable sources; pipeline distribution infrastructure, including natural gas, carbon capture sequestration, water and pipeline integrity services; heavy civil; industrial infrastructure; and environmental remediation services. Our customers are primarily in these industries. Including our predecessor companies, we have been in business for over 90 years. For the twelve month period ended December 31, 2022, we had an average of approximately 770 locations and 30,000 employees, respectively, and as of December 31, 2022, we had approximately 800 locations and 32,000 employees, respectively. We offer our services under the MasTec® and other service marks. We have been consistently ranked among the top specialty contractors by Engineering News-Record for the past several years.
We provide our services to a diversified base of customers, and a significant portion of our services are provided under master service and other service agreements, which are generally multi-year agreements. The remainder of our work is generated pursuant to contracts for specific projects or jobs that require the construction or installation of an entire infrastructure system or specified units within an infrastructure system.
We seek to grow and diversify our business both organically and through acquisitions and/or other strategic arrangements in order to deepen our market presence, broaden our geographic reach and expand our service offerings. For discussion of our recent acquisitions, see Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Business,” which is incorporated by reference.
We manage our operations under five operating segments, which represent our five reportable segments: (1) Communications; (2) Clean Energy and Infrastructure; (3) Oil and Gas; (4) Power Delivery and (5) Other. This structure is generally focused on broad end-user markets for our labor-based construction services.
Our Communications segment performs engineering, construction, maintenance and customer fulfillment activities related to communications infrastructure, primarily for wireless and wireline/fiber communications and install-to-the-home customers, as well as infrastructure for utilities, among others. Our Clean Energy and Infrastructure segment primarily serves energy, utility, government and other end-markets through the installation and construction of power generation facilities, primarily from clean energy and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, biomass, natural gas and hydrogen, as well as battery storage for renewable energy; various types of heavy civil and industrial infrastructure, including rail; and environmental remediation services. We perform engineering, construction and maintenance services for pipeline distribution, including natural gas, carbon capture sequestration, water and pipeline integrity services, for the energy and utilities industries through our Oil and Gas segment. Our Power Delivery segment primarily serves the energy and utility industries through the engineering, construction and maintenance of power transmission and distribution infrastructure, including electrical and gas transmission lines, distribution network systems and substations; and environmental planning and compliance services. The Other segment includes certain equity investees, the services of which may vary from those provided by our primary segments, as well as other small business units that perform construction and other services for certain international end-markets. See Note 13 - Segments and Related Information and Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which are incorporated by reference, for additional information regarding our segment reporting and significant customer concentrations.
In this Form 10-K, “$” means U.S. dollars unless otherwise indicated.
Our industry is composed of national, regional and local companies that provide services to customers in a range of industries. We believe the following industry trends affect demand for our services:
Opportunities in our Communications Segment
Rapid innovation in service offerings to data consumers continues to increase demand for faster and more reliable wireless and wireline/fiber communications network services. Network data traffic is experiencing significant and accelerating levels of growth from increased usage of mobile devices, advancements in the “Internet of Things (IoT)” and a significant increase in the use of mobile and remote technologies. New and upgraded networks will be required to meet the increased level of data traffic from video and streaming technologies, ‘smart’ technologies, artificial intelligence and other technologies and advanced data services, including video surveillance, robotics, drones, digital health applications and autonomous vehicles, among others.
Telecommunications companies are projected to play a significant role in shaping the future as next generation 5G wireless technology gains traction among both businesses and consumers. 5G, the next generation of wireless and fixed wireless network capacity, is expected to provide a platform for the IoT, which can be harnessed to drive innovation and improvements in commerce, transportation, supply chain, research, healthcare, education, public safety, the development of “Smart Cities,” “Smart Homes” and “Smart Farming,” among many other applications. 5G is expected to provide businesses with significant real-time visibility, insight and control over assets, products and services, with the potential to transform how businesses operate and deliver new products and services.
In response to these growing opportunities, communications service providers (“CSPs”) are expanding, densifying and optimizing current 5G wireless and wireline/fiber communications network capacity. To achieve nationwide coverage levels, changes to the structure of the network architecture for 5G wireless communications will require a longer period of installation when compared to past generation wireless infrastructure changes. Large scale 5G deployments, which are ongoing and expected to continue over the next several years, will include additional and improved tower capacity, as well as deployment of numerous higher bandwidth small/micro cells, distributed antenna systems and fiber network expansion to densify network performance. We believe that continued nationwide 5G tower deployments and deployment of small/micro cells and fiber network
expansion by major carriers in support of 5G will lead to growing demand for 5G telecommunications infrastructure over multiple years. The Federal Communications Commission’s (“FCC”) recent Facilitate America’s Superiority in 5G Technology, or “FAST” Plan, has made spectrum available to the market and is expected to encourage implementation of and investment in 5G technology across the United States by streamlining regulatory processes and updating infrastructure policies. In addition, there are several recent initiatives designed to drive development of telecommunications and 5G infrastructure in rural areas.
We believe that there will be significant fiber network expansion resulting from the combination of carrier spend and government programs that are expected to incentivize private investment in telecommunications infrastructure. The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (the “IIJA”) was signed into law in November 2021 and provides approximately $65 billion of funding to improve and expand the nation’s broadband infrastructure and to make broadband more affordable for low-income Americans, including the Broadband Equity, Access and Deployment (“BEAD”) Program. BEAD will provide over $42 billion to expand high-speed internet access by funding planning, infrastructure deployment and adoption programs, with priority for unserved and underserved areas. Other government programs include the Rural Digital Opportunity Fund (“RDOF”), which will make over $20 billion in funding available to build and connect gigabit broadband speeds in unserved rural areas, and the 5G Fund for Rural America, which will provide up to $9 billion in funding through 2030 to bring 5G wireless broadband connectivity to rural America. Additionally, carriers are also investing in telecommunications infrastructure to expand their fiber footprint across the nation. One such example is the recently announced AT&T and BlackRock Alternatives joint venture, Gigapower LLC (“Gigapower”), which will operate a commercial fiber-optic platform in the Unites States. Gigapower plans to deploy its network to an initial 1.5 million customer locations outside of AT&T’s traditional wireline service presence.
The market for Smart City initiatives, in which cities use IoT technologies, artificial intelligence and cloud storage to collect and use insights gained from data to manage city assets, resources and services more efficiently, is a developing trend that is expected to accelerate due to the combination of increased data speeds and data capacity capabilities of wireless and wireline networks and developing IoT applications. Smart City initiatives include such technologies as Wi-Fi kiosks, smart lighting solutions, utility meters, smart traffic management systems, video sensors, weather sensors, drone sensors for public safety efforts and radio frequency identification sensors in the pavement. Grand View Research, in their 2023-2030 Smart Cities Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis report, estimated that the global Smart Cities market size was valued at approximately $1.3 billion in 2022, and is expected to grow at an estimated compound annual growth rate of approximately 26% from 2023 to 2030.
Smart Home technologies represent a wide range of solutions for monitoring, controlling and automating functions in a home. These technologies are expected to benefit from the global rollout of 5G and improvements in Wi-Fi technologies, which are revolutionizing the delivery of IoT services. Demand for smart home solutions is expected to increase significantly as consumers look to add smart home technologies such as connected cameras, video doorbells and security systems, lighting and energy management solutions and entertainment controls. Mordor Intelligence predicts that the Smart Home market will grow from approximately $80 billion in 2021 to approximately $315 billion in 2027. We believe that opportunities for installation and maintenance of both Smart City and Smart Home technologies will provide future growth opportunities, including for our install-to-the-home services business.
We believe that we are well-positioned, as one of the largest providers of communications infrastructure services, to substantially benefit from the expected multi-year significant and broad opportunities in the telecommunications market as previously described.
Opportunities in our Clean Energy and Infrastructure Segment
Climate change initiatives, including a focus on the reduction of carbon emissions, continue to drive trends in the mix of fuel sources used in energy generation toward cleaner and more sustainable energy sources. According to Deloitte’s Industry Outlooks 2021: Power, Utilities & Renewables report, businesses, states, cities and utilities have announced decarbonization plans, with many utilities and their customers announcing and accelerating plans to fully decarbonize over the next three decades. Demand for clean energy power sources continues to grow, with renewables reporting rising levels of usage and capacity, as well as declining costs as a result of innovations that have reduced the manufacturing costs of wind turbines and solar panels. According to a January 2023 publication by BloombergNEF, global investment in low-carbon energy transition projects totaled $1.1 trillion in 2022, a 31% increase over 2021. Of the total 2022 investment in low-carbon energy transition projects, renewable energy projects, including wind, solar and biofuels, totaled $495 billion, a 17% increase over 2021.
Additionally, growing corporate initiatives for smaller, standalone distributed generation facilities, together with regulatory and other policy initiatives at the federal, state and municipal levels, have spurred demand for clean energy production from sustainable power sources, including wind, solar and biomass. Currently, almost 40 states, as well as the District of Columbia and four territories, have adopted renewable portfolio standards (“RPS”) or renewable energy goals. States have created these standards to diversify their energy resources, promote domestic energy production and encourage economic development. Rising state renewable portfolio standards, increasing levels of corporate and residential demand, and improving economic competitiveness of renewable sources continue to be key drivers for their growth. In addition, growing efforts to address electric grid resiliency are expected to drive growth in renewables, as utilities and their customers increasingly consider renewable microgrids combined with energy storage solutions to support critical facilities.
The transition to a renewable energy economy is expected to require rapid transformation of, and significant investment in, the power sector. According to BloombergNEF’s January 2023 publication, energy transition and grid investment will need to triple to approximately $4.5 trillion from 2023 to 2030 to achieve the global net zero goals called for in the Paris Climate Agreement. Recent governmental and policy initiatives are expected to drive growth in renewable energy infrastructure. The IIJA includes funding for renewable energy innovation and deployment. Included within the $65 billion allocated to power infrastructure and energy programs is funding for fuels and technology investment, including carbon initiatives, clean energy technology supply chains, including battery power initiatives, solar energy research and development, and the development and deployment of hydrogen from clean energy sources, among others. In addition, the August 2022 Inflation Reduction Act (“IRA”) contains provisions that are designed to accelerate the deployment of clean energy technologies, reduce carbon emissions, lower energy prices and support the development of a reliable and affordable energy sector. The IRA provides almost $370 billion in clean energy funding to facilitate the clean energy transition, primarily in the form of tax incentives, grants and loan guarantees. Among the clean energy and climate provisions is approximately $70 billion of incentives over the next decade, including extensions of the renewable energy production tax credit and the investment
tax credit for solar and other energy technologies, as well as production tax credits and investment tax credits for the qualified production of clean hydrogen and other clean fuels.
As a result of the trends and factors discussed above, we expect a continuing increase in demand for construction of renewable and other clean energy infrastructure in the coming years. In addition, we believe that replacement and repowering of existing wind turbines and foundations with next generation, higher efficiency turbines, as well as maintenance of aging wind farms, will provide increased opportunities for wind infrastructure projects.
We also provide heavy civil infrastructure construction services, including the construction and maintenance of buildings, roads, bridges, water/sewer systems and other civil infrastructure. We believe that initiatives to upgrade and replace aging infrastructure, along with policy incentives such as the IIJA, will lead to increased investment and future growth opportunities in this area. The IIJA includes approximately $110 billion of funding for roads and bridges, including $40 billion of funding for bridge repair, replacement and rehabilitation and $16 billion of funding for other major infrastructure projects, as well as approximately $50 billion of funding for water infrastructure, including for weatherization efforts to reduce the impact of climate change and to protect against droughts and floods.
We believe that industrial plant construction opportunities exist in a wide variety of industries, including in the renewable energy industry, as power companies explore ways to reduce their carbon footprint. We expect that the need for baseload backup power generation, coupled with the relative low price and environmental advantage of cleaner burning natural gas will continue to drive demand for gas-fired electrical generating plants. In addition, the transition to clean energy is driving recent trends to convert coal-fired power plants to lower carbon fuel sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, biofuel, biomass, hydrogen or a combination thereof. Coal-fired power plants are also being converted into battery storage facilities for renewable energy. A wide variety of industries may seek to expand, convert or construct new plants to take advantage of more economical, cleaner, lower cost and lower carbon fuel sources. Converting existing power plants to renewable sources is an attractive option, given that existing power plants have the electric infrastructure, including the power lines, transformers and other equipment that is required to connect the power to the grid. Additionally, the IRA includes incentives that could help accelerate this trend by improving the economics of the coal-to-clean energy transition, in particular for communities with an existing coal power plant, as the IRA provides for an incremental tax credit for new renewable projects, as well as a new tax credit for battery storage projects. Industrial facilities and power plants in the biofuels/biomass, food processing, lithium recycling, natural gas and related industries present opportunities as additional domestic energy reserves are produced, transported and processed.
We are one of the leading renewable contractors in North America, with expertise in wind, solar and biomass, as well as a leading contractor in the construction of industrial and other power plants and heavy civil infrastructure, and we expect to benefit from market trends in these industries.
Opportunities in our Power Delivery Segment
The U.S. electrical transmission and distribution infrastructure, referred to as “the grid,” is composed of a network of electric generating facilities, high voltage transmission lines, substations and distribution lines that bring power to homes and businesses. The grid will continue to require significant ongoing maintenance, upgrade and expansion to continue delivery of reliable and affordable power. This will include strengthening aging infrastructure, addressing future grid resiliency and modernization efforts (“Smart Grid”) and adapting to changing energy supply, population shifts and distribution requirements, including the impact of the shift toward electric vehicle technologies. According to a June 2022 IBIS World report, U.S. industry revenue for construction and repair work on electric power transmission infrastructure was projected to approximate $48.2 billion in 2022. We expect future growth in electric transmission and distribution infrastructure from projects to digitize, modernize, harden and secure the grid against increasing levels of disruption from natural and man-made disasters, including extreme weather events, wildfires and potential cyber-attacks, as well as to address changing energy supply requirements and grid reliability.
In addition, clean energy production trends are expected to lead to increased investment in electric infrastructure, with a changing fuel mix that is moving toward cleaner and more sustainable energy sources, such as natural gas and renewables. In recent years, many utilities and their customers have announced plans to fully decarbonize over the next three decades. Power grid investment will be a key component of the low-carbon energy transition that is currently underway. According to the DOE’s Annual Energy Outlook 2022, the percentage of U.S. electricity generated by renewable sources is expected to double to over 40% by 2050, with renewable electric generating technologies expected to represent approximately 60% of new capacity additions through 2050.
The expected growth in electrical power generation from renewable energy sources will require significant investment in transmission lines, as wind, solar and other renewable power generation resources are typically located in remote areas of the country, far from industrial users and major population centers. Growth in electrical power generation from renewable sources in the U.S. will require grid updates to provide for storage of electricity from renewable energy sources and capabilities that can accommodate supply and demand for these new energy sources. BloombergNEF reported almost $275 billion of global power grid investment in 2022. Future demand for electrical transmission and distribution infrastructure is also expected to result from ‘Smart Utility’ initiatives, which seek to address growing populations, environmental goals and the need to optimize resources, as well as electric vehicles, as consumers and automakers increasingly shift toward electric vehicle technologies. According to a BloombergNEF January 2023 publication, global investment in electrified transport infrastructure grew to approximately $465 billion in 2022, an increase of over 50% from 2021. In its report, BloombergNEF predicts that energy transition and grid investment will need to triple to approximately $4.5 trillion from 2023 to 2030 to achieve global net zero goals, with electrified transport, renewable energy and grid investment representing the largest energy transition investment opportunities.
These trends, along with governmental climate change policy initiatives toward net zero carbon emissions, as well as the recently passed IIJA and IRA programs, which are designed to incentivize investment in clean energy technologies for power generation, are expected to drive significant future investment in electric infrastructure. The IIJA includes approximately $65 billion for upgrades to power infrastructure, research and development of transmission and electricity distribution technologies and smart grid technologies. The funding is focused on grid reliability and security, renewable energy innovation and deployment, and ensuring supply chains critical for energy innovation. The IIJA also includes $7.5 billion for investment in a national network of electric vehicle chargers. In addition, among the key provisions of the IRA is funding to address climate
change, beginning with a rapid transition in the nation’s energy system to cleaner sources of electric power generation. The IRA includes billions of dollars in tax incentives, grants and loan programs to support the development, and accelerate deployment of, clean energy power projects, including for energy generation, energy manufacturing, clean fuels, clean vehicles and energy efficiency.
We believe significant capital investment in the transmission and distribution system will be required to meet the above-mentioned infrastructure requirements, and that we are well-positioned to benefit from these developing trends.
Opportunities in our Oil and Gas Segment
We are one of the largest pipeline contractors in North America, with a balanced portfolio of service offerings, including union and non-union services. Our pipeline offerings include construction and maintenance services for pipeline distribution, including for natural gas pipelines, carbon capture sequestration, water pipelines and pipeline integrity services, including replacement and rehabilitation of aging infrastructure for the energy and utilities industries.
We expect that natural gas power generation will remain a fuel of choice for both primary power generation and baseload backup power generation to support intermittent clean energy sources, and that this trend will drive the growth of natural gas as a source of base load lower-carbon power generation, both in the U.S. and abroad. According to the DOE’s Annual Energy Outlook 2022, natural gas is expected to approximate 35% of U.S. electricity generation by 2050, and natural gas-powered sources are expected to represent approximately 40% of new capacity additions through 2050, the second largest source behind renewable technologies. We believe that trends in natural gas power generation will require continued construction of pipeline infrastructure to provide fuel safely and efficiently to these facilities. In addition, demand for liquified natural gas (“LNG”) exports has risen in recent years, with the U.S. having exported more LNG than any other country as of July 2022, according to a September 2022 publication by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This continued trend is expected to drive construction of pipeline infrastructure for the transport of LNG to coastal export facilities in North America. Additionally, we believe that gas utility distribution spending for replacement and rehabilitation of aging infrastructure will accelerate over the next several years due to regulatory, sustainability and safety concerns. Similarly, we expect that aging pipeline infrastructure will increasingly require replacement lines and pipeline integrity services as our customers look to enhance the safety, productivity and lives of existing infrastructure.
Additionally, recent trends toward decarbonization and carbon emission reductions in connection with the low-carbon energy transition are driving demand for carbon capture sequestration technologies as well as the use of hydrogen as a clean energy power source. Pipeline infrastructure is expected to play a key role in the transformation to low-carbon energy sources and we believe that we are well positioned to support these developing market trends. The IIJA includes funding for carbon initiatives, including for carbon capture technologies, and the IRA also provides incentives and provisions for hydrogen, carbon capture, utilization and sequestration technologies.
We believe that the above-mentioned trends will support continued levels of future project activity across multiple service offerings we provide and that we are well-positioned to benefit from these trends.
Our competitive strengths include:
Diverse Customer Relationships. We serve a diversified customer and industry base. Our customers include some of the largest communications, utility and power companies, including renewable and other energy providers in North America, among others. We have longstanding relationships and have developed strong alliances with many of our customers, and we strive to maintain these customer relationships and our status as a preferred vendor to our customers.
Reputation for Reliable Customer Service and Technical Expertise. We have established a reputation for quality customer service and technical expertise. Our reputation gives us an advantage when competing for new work, both from existing and potential customers. In addition, we have broad service offerings, together with capabilities and expertise in the construction and installation of a wide variety of infrastructure, including wireless, wireline/fiber, clean energy, power delivery, pipeline, heavy civil and industrial infrastructure.
North American Footprint. Including our predecessor companies, we have been in business for over 90 years and are one of the largest infrastructure construction services companies in North America operating primarily in the United States and Canada. For the twelve month period ended December 31, 2022, we had an average of 770 locations and 30,000 employees, respectively, and as of December 31, 2022, we had approximately 800 locations and 32,000 employees, respectively. We offer comprehensive end-to-end infrastructure services to our customers and believe that our experience, technical expertise, geographic reach, financial resources and size are important to our customers.
Ability to Respond Quickly and Effectively. The skills required to serve our end-markets are similar, which allows us to utilize qualified personnel across multiple end-markets and projects. We are able to respond quickly and effectively to industry, market and technological changes, demand and major weather and climate-related events by allocating our employees, fleet and other assets as and where they are needed, enabling us to provide cost-effective and timely services for our customers. We have demonstrated that we have the ability, resources and comprehensive service capabilities required to handle large and complex projects, and our geographic reach, scalability and financial stability enable us to meet our customers’ changing needs.
Experienced Management Team. Our management team plays a significant role in establishing and maintaining long-term relationships with our customers, supporting the growth of our business, integrating acquired businesses and managing the financial aspects of our operations. Our executive management team, business unit presidents and project management teams have broad industry experience and a deep understanding of our customers and their requirements. Key management personnel of acquired businesses generally continue to work for us under employment or services agreements.
As a leading infrastructure construction services provider, we are committed to conducting our operations in a safe, diverse and socially responsible manner that benefits our stakeholders, including our employees, customers, subcontractors, suppliers, investors and the communities in which we operate. Sustainability principles and practices are embedded within our strategy, risk management and day-to-day operations. We strive to be recognized as a company that achieves customer expectations safely, profitably and in a manner that is environmentally responsible, socially aware and rewarding for all our stakeholders. We strive to achieve these goals through an organizational structure that provides excellent service delivery; establishes a reputation of integrity within the communities in which we work; and provides our team members growth opportunities in a diverse, inclusive and injury-free environment.
Sustainability Governance. We believe that sustainability is central to our mission and success. The Nominating, Sustainability and Corporate Governance Committee of the Board of Directors has oversight of sustainability matters for MasTec, including overseeing and periodically reviewing MasTec’s integration of corporate responsibility and sustainability, including environmental, social and governance principles and climate-related matters into our business strategy and decision-making processes.
Our sustainability reporting is guided by the concepts and disclosures under the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (“SASB”) for the Engineering and Construction Services Industry and the Task Force on Climate-Related Disclosures (“TCFD”). We are working to develop our processes and reporting for sustainability-related matters. Our Sustainability Report, including our SASB and TCFD reference tables, along with our Nominating, Sustainability and Corporate Governance Board Committee charter and our policies on Human and Labor Rights and Safety, Health and Environmental matters can be found on our website at https://investors.mastec.com. No reference to our website or our website address in this report constitutes incorporation by reference of the information contained on the website and such information is not part of this report.
Stakeholder Engagement. Stakeholder engagement is a key element of our sustainability efforts and communications. We regularly engage with our investors, employees, customers, subcontractors, suppliers and communities to understand the priority sustainability issues for our business. The feedback we receive from these engagement efforts informs our understanding of the issues most significant to our stakeholders. We seek to monitor these issues and effectively communicate with our stakeholders to strengthen these relationships.
Investing in a Sustainable Future
Investment in sustainable business opportunities is a key component of our business strategy for future growth. Through the construction services we provide, we help to modernize, connect and make our communities safer and more sustainable while helping to build our nation’s infrastructure, including the development and expansion of our nation’s clean energy footprint and the transformation of our electrical grid and pipeline infrastructure. The telecommunications and install-to-the home services we provide are also expected to play a key role in expanding connectivity to and within homes and communities, including in rural areas, facilitating the transformation to an inclusive and sustainable future. We are committed to working together with our customers to upgrade our nation’s infrastructure – to build better, stronger and more versatile infrastructure to meet the opportunities and challenges of our nation’s future.
Clean energy infrastructure. As a leading North American clean energy contractor, we are committed to working with our customers to advance the transition to a lower carbon economy. In the fourth quarter of 2022, we completed the acquisition of Infrastructure and Energy Alternatives, Inc. (“IEA”), one of the largest utility-scale renewable energy infrastructure solutions providers in North America, significantly expanding the scale, expertise and capacity of our renewable power construction and maintenance service offerings. Through our Clean Energy and Infrastructure segment, we provide engineering, procurement and construction services and project management solutions to the power market, with services across wind, solar, biofuels, waste-to-energy (WtE) and biogas, cogeneration or combined heat and power projects, gas and hydrogen-fired power projects and battery storage. Our Clean Energy and Infrastructure segment has grown significantly from $300 million in revenue for 2017 to approximately $2.6 billion in revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022. Our renewable energy infrastructure business, which represented approximately 3% of our consolidated revenue in 2017, has grown to approximately 12% of our consolidated revenue in 2022, including the results of IEA for approximately one quarter. We expect significant growth in our renewable energy business in 2023, to approximately $3 billion in total revenue, representing almost 25% of our consolidated business results. As interest in climate change solutions continues to increase, including decarbonization of power generation, we anticipate expanding growth opportunities in our clean energy and infrastructure group. Assuming these trends continue, we anticipate that our Clean Energy and Infrastructure segment will continue to significantly expand and approach almost 40% of our total revenue over the next several years.
Power delivery infrastructure. We believe the nation’s electrical transmission and distribution grid infrastructure will require significant capital investment to support the transition to low-carbon renewable power sources and the broader adoption of electric vehicles. We build infrastructure that connects our nation’s power generation sources to consumers, including infrastructure solutions that link remotely located renewable electric generation capacity to energy consumers and provide access to new renewable and efficient natural gas and other power generation sources. We also work with our customers to design and build innovative, smart energy solutions, including modernization of overstressed sections of the electric grid with insufficient capacity, electric grid hardening, wildfire mitigation and restoration services and the upgrade of aging electric infrastructure. Our projects improve the performance, safety, resiliency and efficiency of the nation’s electrical grid and advance the goal of modern, smart energy solutions for our nation’s future that will contribute to the diversification of power generation sources in the future. In December 2021, we completed the acquisition of Henkels & McCoy Holdings, Inc., formerly known as Henkels & McCoy Group, Inc. (“HMG”), one of the largest utility contractors in the United States. The addition of HMG to MasTec’s existing operations has enhanced our capabilities, scale and capacity in providing power delivery services to our customers as they work to advance the transition to renewable energy generation and modernize power grid systems.
Telecommunications infrastructure. We build wireless and wireline/fiber infrastructure that connects communities and improves communications infrastructure across our nation. Demand for wireline and wireless infrastructure has accelerated in recent years, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, which increased demand for connected technologies to support increased levels of telecommuting, telehealth, virtual learning and other advanced “internet-of-things” and remote technologies. Technological advances that improve speed, connectivity and
bandwidth across our nation, including in dense urban areas and in rural communities, are expected to serve as the foundation for transformative technological innovations, including ‘Smart City’ and urbanization projects and other advances in connected technologies. The faster speeds and reduced latency associated with 5G is forecast to serve as the foundation for transformative technological innovations, such as connected cars, robotics, telematics, healthcare, industrial applications and entertainment, which have the potential to improve living standards across all communities as well as to reduce our nation’s carbon footprint. We are participating in the buildout of our nation’s 5G and other telecommunications infrastructure, helping to revolutionize telecommunications technologies across the U.S. We are also proud to have participated in the buildout and expansion of FirstNetTM, the nation’s first wireless official public safety network for first responders.
Energy pipeline infrastructure. Investments in pipeline integrity and line maintenance promote environmental and public safety, including methane reduction initiatives, while enhancing the safety, productivity and useful lives of our customers’ assets. Our natural gas pipeline construction services help our customers access and distribute cleaner burning natural gas throughout the United States, assisting in the transition from high carbon emission electricity sources to natural gas as a cleaner burning and lower carbon emission fuel source. Additionally, pipeline infrastructure provides a lower carbon emission and environmentally safer transportation alternative for oil and gas products versus truck and rail transport. A study published by the National Bureau of Economic Research found that the air pollution and greenhouse gas effects of shipping crude oil by rail are nearly twice as large as those when using pipelines for such transport.
Carbon initiatives. Developing trends in decarbonization and carbon emission reductions are expected to create demand for carbon capture technologies, biofuel generation and electricity generation utilizing environmentally-friendly hydrogen fuel. Pipeline infrastructure is expected to play a key role in this transformation and we believe that we are well positioned to support these developing market trends.
Water pipelines. Our water pipeline services increase the efficiency of water used in energy field operations in an environmentally-focused manner. We build expansive water pipeline gathering networks, which allow for the recycling of water, thereby reducing freshwater requirements as well as the amount of water disposed. Additionally, the use of water pipelines reduces the need for trucking, which saves time, money and reduces pollution and carbon emissions.
Emergency restoration services. The increased frequency and severity of weather and climate-related events, including hurricanes, wildfires and ice storms, exacerbated in part by climate change, have created a greater need for power and telecommunications reliability and restoration services. Following the occurrence of storms and other natural disasters, our dedicated crews are quickly on-site, helping to restore power and telecommunications services in affected areas. Our power delivery crews are also involved in preventative and restoration efforts for wildfire-related events. Our crews are among those that are called upon to maintain and patrol electrical lines during high-risk periods, such as in periods of drought, high wind and extreme temperatures, so that power lines can be proactively and safely managed, as well as to assist with restoration efforts following wildfire events. We also provide wildfire mitigation services, including grid hardening and power line undergrounding, whereby power lines are buried in areas considered to be at high risk for fires. We also provide electrical grid hardening services in several regions of the country to reduce the risk of storm outages caused by damage to overhead power lines during a storm. These efforts include the movement of overhead power lines and related infrastructure underground, as well as replacement of wood poles with concrete or steel poles capable of withstanding significant storm events. MasTec is proud to work with and support communities affected by natural disasters, including repair and modernization efforts for telecommunications and electric grid infrastructure.
Environmental planning, compliance and remediation. Environmental planning and compliance are a top priority on all MasTec projects, and are a key element of construction projects across the nation. Our environmental services group specializes in all aspects of environmental planning, permitting and compliance within energy infrastructure. We have expertise in environmental inspection and compliance, environmental permitting, planning and pre-construction services, natural resources management, including wildlife and sensitive natural resource protection, siting and feasibility studies and community and government outreach designed to build lasting community relationships. We also have expertise in environmental remediation services, including site development, environmental site closure and coal combustion residuals management services.
We believe that we all play a role in environmental stewardship. We help our customers find solutions to their environmental goals and requirements and are likewise committed to responsibly managing the environmental impacts of our operations. Our customers rely on our expertise with governmental and regulatory agencies to meet increasingly stringent regulatory requirements. Environmental matters are an integral part of our business planning and decision-making processes. We believe in sustainable development and are committed to integrating biodiversity preservation principles into our operational practices. Our corporate policies and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics require that all applicable environmental regulations and compliance requirements are met in the course of our operations. Our planning processes incorporate procedures to ensure compliance with all such laws and regulations.
Climate change mitigation and environmental initiatives. We are committed to minimizing the effects of our operations on the climate and the environment and endeavor to reduce our carbon footprint, energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions. We seek to foster conservation and environmental awareness within our operations, and we endeavor to identify and incorporate energy, carbon and water efficiency considerations into our project planning and execution. We understand the importance of tracking and managing climate-related matters, including greenhouse gas emissions. We are evaluating processes that will enable us to measure and manage our climate-related risks and opportunities on an enterprise-wide basis. We have implemented GPS, smart idling and other advanced technologies in approximately 80% of our vehicle fleet operations to improve fleet efficiency, fuel consumption and safety. Additionally, certain of our operations have invested in equipment containing advanced emissions reduction technologies, helping to reduce our carbon footprint.
Community and Social Matters
At MasTec, we are proud to serve the communities in which we operate. Partnering with our communities and our customers is fundamental to our business operations. We plan and act for the future, for the long-term good of our company, our customers and our communities. We are active in our local communities and participate in charitable giving, community outreach and community building programs, including disaster relief efforts for communities affected by hurricanes, flooding and similar events. We also have an unwavering commitment to our team
members in times of need. In addition to community outreach programs, we seek to develop strong relationships with our local communities, businesses, subcontractors and suppliers, and we have been recognized for our efforts in community and outreach programs by various organizations.
We place a significant priority on respectful collaboration with our local communities, including indigenous communities, and we utilize indigenous community subcontractors and suppliers within our operations. We support our local communities by utilizing local businesses for goods and services, including for project crews and office operations, and we are active members of our local chambers of commerce and economic development organizations. Our community outreach programs include programs tailored to military veterans, who represented approximately 4% of our workforce in 2022.
Leadership and Governance
Integrity, honesty, and fairness are at the heart of our Company. Our leadership team and Board of Directors are committed to fostering a strong organizational culture built upon accountability, business and personal ethics, integrity and compliance. We believe that an ethical culture builds credibility and trust. We hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards of professionalism, and respect the opinions, ideas and perspectives of our team members, customers, subcontractors, suppliers and those in the communities we serve. Among the ethical matters addressed in our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics are our policies on discrimination and harassment, ethical and fair business practices and compliance with insider trading policies, anti-bribery and anti-corruption guidelines and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Training programs related to governance matters are routinely provided at intervals based on an employee’s position and responsibilities. We also expect our subcontractors and suppliers to maintain proper business conduct and ethics protocols.
Governance Principles and Shareholder Alignment. We seek to align the interests of our Board of Directors and management with those of our shareholders and other stakeholders, and we believe that an independent, well-diversified Board is an essential attribute of effective Board governance. Diverse backgrounds are integral to effective governance, risk management and business opportunity assessments, which are key components of creating long-term value. Our Board has racial, ethnic and gender diversity, with approximately 63% of our Board representing women or minorities as of December 31, 2022. Our Board also has a diverse skill set, including members with executive leadership, financial, risk management, health and safety and relevant industry expertise.
Our management team and our Board of Directors have significant ownership in MasTec’s common stock, which further aligns their interests with those of our other shareholders. Our single class capital structure is grounded on the “one-share, one-vote” principle, which we believe is aligned with strong corporate governance standards. We have detailed governance procedures, including our Audit Committee Charter, Compensation Committee Charter and our Nominating, Sustainability and Corporate Governance Committee Charter. These charters, as well our comprehensive Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and Board of Director Governance Principles, can be viewed on the “Investors” page of our website at MasTec.com.
Risk Mitigation Practices. We believe that responsible corporate governance requires great attention to potential business and other risks. As part of our corporate risk mitigation strategy, we regularly assess potential risks and hazards within our business and operations, including potential risks associated with climate change. Risk assessments are performed on an ongoing basis at both the organizational and at the project level. We also apply a risk-based approach with respect to cyber security. We are committed to the privacy of employee, customer and company information and undertake significant efforts to protect this information. We continually evaluate cyber risks to properly safeguard our systems and business operations.
Sustainability and Climate-Related Governance. The Nominating, Sustainability and Corporate Governance Committee of the Board of Directors has oversight of sustainability-oriented matters for MasTec, including overseeing MasTec’s approach to considering, evaluating and integrating climate-related risks and opportunities into MasTec’s business strategy and decision-making processes. This Committee is also responsible for considering MasTec’s material sustainability issues, discussing associated risks with the full Board and management and reviewing and considering whether MasTec has appropriate policies, processes, strategies and initiatives in place to address such matters, including climate-related risks and opportunities. The potential implications and financial impact of the climate-related risks and opportunities remains uncertain, but we recognize that these risks and opportunities could be significant to our business. We regularly assess our business risks and opportunities, and we are working to develop our processes to assess the potential effects and magnitude of climate-related risks and opportunities on our operations, financial results and key business strategies, as guided by the recommendations of the TCFD.
The key elements of our business strategy are as follows:
Focus on Growth Opportunities. We believe that our end-markets offer multiple growth opportunities, and we expect continued spending by key customers in many of the industries we serve. We expect development of wireless and wireline/fiber infrastructure; development of clean energy infrastructure; expansion, maintenance and upgrades of power delivery infrastructure, including electrical and gas transmission lines and distribution networks; development of pipeline infrastructure, including carbon capture technologies and pipeline integrity work; and heavy civil and industrial infrastructure construction projects to be areas of investment and opportunity in the coming years. We intend to use our broad geographic presence, technical expertise, financial and operational resources, customer relationships and full range of services to capitalize on these trends and grow our business.
Operational Excellence. We seek to effectively manage our projects and services to maintain appropriate profit margins and cash flows. We also strive to identify opportunities for leverage within our business, such as deploying resources across multiple customers and projects in order to enhance our operating effectiveness and utilization rates. We also seek to maintain strong working capital management practices. Our management team pursues actions and programs designed to achieve these goals, such as increasing accountability throughout our organization, effectively managing customer contract bidding procedures, evaluating opportunities to improve our working capital cycle time, hiring and retaining experienced operating and financial professionals, and developing, expanding and integrating the use of financial systems and information technology capabilities within our business.
Effective Capital Structure Management. We have made significant investments in transformational acquisition activities over the past few years, including the acquisition of IEA in the fourth quarter of 2022, and the acquisitions of HMG, and INTREN, LLC (“INTREN”) in 2021. We achieved an investment grade credit rating in 2021 and have maintained this investment grade rating despite the increase in our leverage during 2022, primarily to finance the acquisition of IEA. We expect to manage our capital structure in the future to maintain this credit rating and we believe that we have sufficient capital resources to fund our planned operations. As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately $861 million of borrowing availability under our revolving credit facility, with aggregate borrowing commitments of approximately $2.3 billion under our senior unsecured credit facility. We may consider opportunities to refinance, repurchase or retire outstanding debt as part of our ongoing capital structure evaluation. See Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Summary of Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources,” for details pertaining to recent capital structure activities.
Leverage Core Performance and Expertise through Strategic Acquisitions. We pursue selected acquisitions, investments and strategic arrangements that allow us to expand our operations, service offerings, customer base or geographic reach. We have diversified our business and expanded our service offerings and geographic footprint in recent years, both organically and through acquisitions. For discussion of our recent acquisitions, see Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Business,” which is incorporated by reference. In our efforts to maximize the potential of the businesses we acquire, we work to integrate them into our operations and internal control environment in a timely and efficient manner. We evaluate our business and operations on a regular basis, and from time to time, we may divest certain businesses or assets or curtail selected business activities or operations that do not produce adequate revenue or margin or those that no longer fit within our long-term business strategy.
Our core services are the engineering, building, installation, maintenance and upgrade of infrastructure, primarily for communications, power generation and utilities customers. We provide similar services to each of these customers, including:
Build. We build infrastructure projects for customers across a range of industries. We specialize in building underground and overhead distribution systems, including trenches, conduits, cell towers, fiber, cable and power lines that provide wireless and wireline/fiber communications; clean energy infrastructure, including for renewable energy power generation; pipeline infrastructure, including for natural gas, carbon capture sequestration and other product transport; power delivery services, including electrical and gas transmission and distribution systems; industrial and heavy civil infrastructure; compressor and pump stations and treatment plants; and water infrastructure, including water pipelines.
Install. We install electrical and gas distribution and transmission systems, power generation facilities, buried and aerial fiber optic and other cables, and provide various install-to-the-home products and services, including home automation and energy management solutions in a variety of environments for our customers. In connection with our installation work, we deploy and manage network connections that involve our customers’ hardware, software and network equipment.
Maintain and Upgrade. We offer 24 hour/365 days-a-year maintenance and upgrade support to our customers. Our comprehensive service offerings include the regular maintenance of our customers’ distribution facilities, networks and infrastructure, including communications, power generation, pipeline, electrical distribution and transmission and industrial and heavy civil infrastructure. We also provide emergency services for service restoration following natural disasters and accidents, and we perform environmental planning, compliance and remediation. Our upgrade work ranges from routine replacements and upgrades to major overhauls.
We have longstanding relationships with many customers, and often provide services under master service and other service agreements, which are generally multi-year agreements. Our master service agreements are typically exclusive up to a specified dollar amount per work order for each defined geographic area, but do not obligate our customers to undertake any infrastructure projects or other work with us. Work performed under master service and other service agreements is usually generated through work orders, each of which is performed for a fixed fee. Services provided under these agreements range from engineering, project management and installation work to maintenance and upgrade services. Master service and other service agreements are frequently awarded on a competitive bidding basis, although customers are sometimes willing to negotiate contract extensions beyond their original terms without re-bidding. Our master service and other service agreements have various terms, depending upon the nature of the services provided, and typically provide for termination on short or no advance notice. For the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, revenue derived from projects performed under master service and other service agreements totaled 51%, 38% and 36%, respectively, of consolidated revenue.
The remainder of our work is generated pursuant to contracts for specific projects or jobs requiring the construction and installation of an entire infrastructure system or specified units within an entire infrastructure system. Customers are billed with varying frequency, the timing of which is generally dependent upon advance billing terms, milestone billings based on completion of certain phases of the work, or when services are provided. Under the typical payment terms of master and other service agreements and contracts for specific projects, the customer makes progress payments based on quantifiable measures of performance as defined in the agreements. Some of our contracts include retainage provisions, under which a portion of the contract amount (generally, from 5% to 10% of billings) can be retained by the customer until final contract settlement.
We believe that our industry experience, technical expertise, broad service capabilities and reputation for customer service, as well as the relationships developed between our customers and our senior management and project management teams are important to our being retained by our customers. See Note 13 - Segments and Related Information and Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which are incorporated by reference, for customer concentration information.
Estimated backlog represents the amount of revenue we expect to realize over the next 18 months from future work on uncompleted construction contracts, including new contracts under which work has not begun, as well as revenue from change orders and renewal options. Our estimated backlog also includes amounts under master service and other service agreements and our proportionate share of estimated revenue from proportionately consolidated non-controlled contractual joint ventures. Estimated backlog for work under master service and other service agreements is determined based on historical trends, anticipated seasonal impacts, experience from similar projects and estimates of customer demand based on communications with our customers. Based on current expectations of our customers’ requirements, we anticipate that we will realize approximately 75% of our estimated year-end 2022 backlog in 2023. The following table presents 18-month estimated backlog by reportable segment as of the dates indicated:
Reportable Segment (in millions):
|December 31, 2022||September 30, 2022|
December 31, 2021 (a)
|Communications||$||5,303 ||$||5,024 ||$||4,583 |
|Clean Energy and Infrastructure||3,227 ||1,933 ||1,543 |
|Oil and Gas||1,740 ||1,513 ||1,171 |
|Power Delivery||2,709 ||2,757 ||2,642 |
|Other||— ||— ||— |
|Estimated 18-month backlog||$||12,979 ||$||11,227 ||$||9,939 |
(a) Backlog as of December 31, 2021 was recast during the first quarter of 2022 to conform with the change in segment reporting for the HMG acquisition, the effect of which was a decrease in Power Delivery segment backlog of $223.0 million, and an increase in backlog for the Communications and Oil and Gas segments of $79.0 million and $144.0 million, respectively.
As of December 31, 2022, 56% of our backlog is estimated to be attributable to amounts under master service or other service agreements, pursuant to which our customers are not contractually committed to purchase a minimum amount of services. Most of these agreements can be canceled on short or no advance notice. Timing of revenue for construction and installation projects included in our backlog can be subject to change as a result of customer, regulatory or other delays or cancellations, including from economic or other conditions, including supply chain disruptions, inflationary effects, climate-related matters, potential recessionary uncertainty, political unrest, such as the ongoing military conflict in Ukraine, effects of public health matters and/or other project-related factors. These effects, among others, could cause estimated revenue to be realized in periods later than originally expected, or not at all. We occasionally experience postponements, cancellations and reductions in expected future work due to changes in our customers’ spending plans, market volatility, changes in governmental permitting, regulatory delays and/or other factors. There can be no assurance as to our customers’ requirements or that actual results will be consistent with the estimates included in our forecasts. As a result, our backlog as of any particular date is an uncertain indicator of future revenue and earnings.
Backlog is a common measurement used in our industry. Our methodology for determining backlog may not, however, be comparable to the methodologies used by others. Backlog differs from the amount of our remaining performance obligations, which are described in Note 1 - Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference. As of December 31, 2022, total 18-month backlog differed from the amount of our remaining performance obligations due primarily to the inclusion of $7.7 billion of estimated future revenue under master service and other service agreements within our backlog estimates, as described above, and the exclusion of approximately $2.4 billion of remaining performance obligations and estimated future revenue under master service and other service agreements in excess of 18 months, which amount is not included in the backlog estimates above. Backlog expected to be realized in 2023 differs from the amount of remaining performance obligations expected to be recognized for the same period due primarily to the inclusion of approximately $4.2 billion of estimated future revenue under master service and other service agreements that is included within the related backlog estimate.
Sales and Marketing
Our customers increasingly require resources from multiple disciplines. Therefore, our subsidiary services companies market their services not only individually, but also in combination with other companies, including other MasTec companies and independent companies, to provide what we believe are the most efficient and effective solutions to meet our customers’ demands. Through our unified MasTec® brand and an integrated organizational structure designed to permit rapid deployment of our services, we are able to quickly and efficiently allocate resources to meet customer needs. We offer services that are branded under the MasTec® service mark and other service marks.
We have a business development and marketing plan emphasizing the MasTec® registered service mark and trade names of certain acquired companies, as well as an integrated service offering to position ourselves as a provider of a full range of service solutions, providing services including installation as well as sophisticated engineering, design and integration. We believe our longstanding relationships with customers and our reputation for reliability and efficiency facilitate our recurring business. Our marketing efforts are principally carried out by the management of our business units and project groups in coordination with our corporate business development organization. Our management team has many years of industry experience, both at the service provider level, and in some cases, with the customers we serve. Our business unit and project group managers market directly to existing and potential customers for new contracts and also seek our inclusion on lists of vendors invited to submit proposals for service agreements and individual projects. We also market our services in conjunction with certain business partners, strategic investments and arrangements. Our executive management supplements these efforts at the national level.
Safety and Insurance/Risk Management
We have a proactive safety culture and we strive to instill and enforce safe work habits in our employees. Our employees are required to participate in training programs relevant to their employment, including all those required by law. We actively train our workforce in everyday
safety practices and provide detailed guidelines that are required to be followed as work tasks are contemplated and completed. Training programs are tailored to an employee’s job function, responsibilities and level of experience and are designed in accordance with industry best practices and standards. We evaluate employees in part based upon their safety records and the safety records of the employees they supervise. Team members are responsible for preventing incidents, injuries and occupational illnesses, and our project leadership team is tasked with ensuring that projects are accomplished in a safe, productive, environmentally and quality-focused manner. Our business units have established robust safety programs to monitor and improve compliance with safety procedures and regulations, and through our risk management programs, we educate our staff, subcontractors and suppliers on safety matters. We strive continuously to assess and improve our safety programs and performance. We also provide training for other workplace and risk management programs, including for cyber security, workplace diversity and harassment, human trafficking awareness, emergency preparedness and other potential workplace hazards, among others.
Our business involves the use of heavy equipment and exposure to potentially dangerous workplace conditions. While we are committed to operating safely and prudently, we are subject to claims by employees, customers and third parties for property damage and personal injuries that occur in connection with our work. Our insurance policies are subject to high deductibles and we are self-insured up to the amount of the deductible. We maintain insurance policies for workers’ compensation, general liability and automobile liability that are subject to per claim deductibles. In addition, we maintain excess umbrella coverage and an insurance policy with respect to employee group medical claims, which is subject to annual per employee maximum losses. We also manage certain of our insurance liabilities indirectly through our wholly-owned captive insurance companies, which reimburse claims up to the applicable insurance limits. We are required to post collateral to certain of our insurance carriers, generally in the form of letters of credit, surety bonds and cash. See Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference.
Suppliers, Materials and Working Capital
Under many of our contracts, our customers provide the necessary materials and supplies for projects and we are responsible for the installation of, but not the cost or warranty of, those materials. Under certain other projects, we purchase the necessary materials and supplies on behalf of our customers from third-party providers. We have not been dependent on any one vendor for project-related materials or supplies required for the projects we manage. We also depend on the availability of certain equipment to perform our services. We operate a diverse fleet of on-road and off-road equipment. Substantially all of our equipment is obtained from third-party vendors, and we are not dependent upon any single vendor for our equipment requirements. A number of factors that we may not be able to accurately predict or control could result in increased costs for, or delays in delivery of, materials and equipment, including supply chain disruptions.
In 2022, certain market-related supply chain disruptions affected our industry, and as a result, we increased our level of purchasing activity to secure the necessary materials and equipment to meet our project requirements. While we believe that we have taken steps to secure delivery of the materials and equipment required by our business operations and do not anticipate any significant disruptions with respect thereto, our operations could be negatively affected if the current supply chain disruptions continue or become worse. In addition, certain of our clean energy customers began experiencing regulatory-related supply chain issues in 2022 that have resulted in delays, shortages of, and increased costs for, the materials necessary to construct certain solar renewable projects, which could affect our ability to perform these projects in the near-term.
We utilize independent contractors to assist on projects and to help us manage our work flow. Our independent contractors typically provide their own vehicles, tools and insurance coverage. We are not dependent on any one independent contractor. We need working capital to support seasonal variations in our business, including the spending patterns of our customers and the effects of weather conditions on external construction and maintenance work, both of which can influence the timing of spending to support related customer demand. See Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources - Working Capital,” which is incorporated by reference.
Our industry is highly competitive and highly fragmented. We compete with a number of companies in the markets in which we operate, ranging from small local independent companies to large national firms. Certain barriers to entry exist in the markets in which we operate, including adequate financial resources, technical expertise, high safety ratings, established customer relationships and a proven track record of operational success. Some of our customers employ their own personnel to perform infrastructure services of the type we provide. We compete based upon our industry experience, technical expertise, financial and operational resources, geographic presence, industry reputation, safety record and reputation for customer service. While we believe our customers consider a number of factors when selecting a service provider, they award most of their work through a bid process, and price is often a principal factor in determining which service provider is selected.
Regulation and Environmental Matters
We are subject to state and federal laws that apply to businesses generally, including laws and regulations related to labor relations, wages, worker safety and environmental protection. While many of our customers operate in regulated industries (for example, utilities regulated by the public service commission or communications companies regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”), we are generally not subject to such regulation and oversight. In addition to environmental laws and regulations, our operations are subject to numerous other laws and regulations, among them:
• regulations related to worker safety and health, including those established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) and state equivalents;
•regulations related to vehicle registrations, including those of the states and the U.S. Department of Transportation (“DOT”);
• contractor licensing requirements;
• permitting and inspection requirements;
• building and electrical codes; and
•cyber data protection and security.
We are subject to numerous environmental laws, regulations and programs, including the handling, transportation and disposal of non-hazardous and hazardous substances and wastes, laws governing emissions and discharges into the environment, including discharges into air, surface water, groundwater and soil, and programs related to the protection of endangered species and critical habitats. Our pipeline-related activities require careful adherence to environmental regulations because such operations may have impacts on groundwater, surface waters and other environmentally sensitive areas. Similarly, our power delivery construction operations often require us to operate in remote areas involving environmentally sensitive habitats as well as areas that are subject to risk of wildfire.
We have a substantial investment in construction equipment that utilizes fuel. Any changes in laws requiring us to use equipment that runs on alternative power sources, could require a significant investment, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. We also are subject to laws and regulations that impose liability and cleanup responsibility for releases of hazardous substances into the environment. Under certain of these laws and regulations, liabilities can be imposed for cleanup of properties, regardless of whether we directly caused the contamination or violated any law at the time of discharge or disposal. The presence of contamination from such substances or wastes could interfere with ongoing operations or adversely affect our business.
In addition, we could be held liable for significant penalties and damages under certain environmental laws and regulations. Our contracts with customers may also impose liabilities on us regarding environmental issues that arise through the performance of our services. From time to time, we may incur unanticipated and substantial costs and obligations related to environmental compliance and/or remediation matters. We believe we have all material licenses and permits needed to conduct operations and that we are in material compliance with all applicable regulatory and environmental requirements. We could, however, incur significant liabilities if we fail to comply with such requirements.
Additionally, there are significant environmental regulations under consideration to address climate change, regulate emissions of greenhouse gases and encourage the use of clean energy technologies. We regularly monitor proposed regulations and legislation and have processes in place to adapt our business and operations, as necessary, to meet any such new requirements.
Financial Information About Geographic Areas
We operate primarily in the United States and Canada. See Note 13 - Segments and Related Information in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference.
Human Capital Management
At MasTec, our employees are an integral part of our growth and success. MasTec began as a family business, and every member of the MasTec team is considered part of the MasTec family. The safety, health and welfare of our employees is at the heart of our operations. We are committed to diversity and inclusion in the workplace and value the diverse and varied perspectives and experiences of our employees. We believe that our commitment to our employees, together with our team culture, fosters an environment of strong employee engagement. When our employees are safe, healthy and engaged, we are most productive. We believe that our employees and our customers benefit from the collective and well-coordinated efforts that result from effective employee engagement, teamwork and collaboration, which, in turn, allows us to deliver the highest level of excellence to our stakeholders.
For the twelve month period ended December 31, 2022, we had an average of approximately 30,000 employees, of which approximately 7,000 were represented by unions or were subject to collective bargaining agreements, and as of December 31, 2022, we had approximately 32,000 employees, of which approximately 7,000 were represented by unions or were subject to collective bargaining agreements. Approximately 97% of our employees are located in the United States.
Safety. Safety is a core value at MasTec. It is a mindset that permeates all aspects of our operations, and an attitude that our employees exhibit, strongly and openly. We recognize the need of our workforce to have a safe workplace and are committed to maintaining a strong and sustainable safety culture within our organization. We continually evaluate our safety programs to protect our most important asset – our team members. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic presented unprecedented challenges in many parts of our business and operations, including with respect to keeping our employees safe. Accordingly, we adjusted our standard operating procedures within our business operations to ensure employee and customer safety and developed human resource guidance to assist our employees with the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
We have a proactive safety culture, and our safety leadership structure is designed to create accountability within each of our businesses and at the corporate level. Our safety management process includes continuously monitoring, reporting and addressing our key safety performance indicators. Our “Zero Harm” culture is fundamental to our goal of world class safety performance, and we work to instill safety values in every team member, such that safe behavior becomes instinctive and automatic. We are driven by our commitment to safety and our “Zero Harm” culture to develop and implement safety programs and processes with safety excellence as our goal. We strive continuously to improve our safety performance and provide regular safety training and skill-level improvement programs, including: safety orientation for new employees, safety leadership training for our front-line leaders, OSHA construction outreach training, defensive driving and DOT training, operator qualification and electric worker training, excavation and ground penetration safety training, among others. We have adopted numerous safety initiatives throughout our organization, including fleet telematics applications.
Through our risk management programs and other safety initiatives, we educate our staff, subcontractors and suppliers on safety matters. The high standards of safety, incident prevention and hazard control that we expect within our operations are also expected of our subcontractors and suppliers. We have memberships and participate in numerous safety and other organizations that promote industry safety. Our safety performance is periodically recognized by our customers as well as by safety organizations.
Health and Wellness. Encouraging good health and following a healthy lifestyle is a MasTec philosophy. We encourage all our employees to take an active role in living a healthy lifestyle and offer wellness tools and resources to help achieve and maintain good health. We offer a comprehensive and flexible benefits program, including medical, dental, vision and prescription insurance, as well as access to telehealth services, which were expanded during the COVID-19 pandemic to assist employees with medical and mental health matters. In addition, to help our employees build a financially secure future, we offer a 401(k) plan with matching benefits, an employee stock purchase plan, life and disability insurance plans and a flexible spending account to help employees cover medical expenses. We also offer employees support for personal and work-life issues, including health, legal and financial matters.
Professional and Career Development. We believe that professional development is essential to the success of our business, as it drives employee engagement and ensures that our team members have the requisite skills and training to deliver the highest level of excellence to our customers. Our employees’ career development begins with the onboarding process and continues throughout their careers. Ongoing training is designed to develop our employees’ technical, professional and leadership skills and is customized to meet the qualifications and requirements necessary for our employees to succeed in their positions. We invest significant resources in education, certification, training programs, and other professional development opportunities, including apprenticeship- and leadership-oriented training programs, tuition reimbursement for qualified training programs, sponsored attendance at industry conferences, departmental and divisional leadership conferences, employee training centers and advancement opportunities within and across businesses and divisions. We seek to develop and cultivate current and future leaders, and design our training programs to create high performing teams, improve productivity, positively affect employee motivation and retention and further enhance career development opportunities. We believe that our team culture, along with competitive salary and benefits packages and our focus on employee training and career development, including opportunities for promotion and mobility within our organization, helps us to attract and retain a diverse and experienced workforce.
Team Culture, Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. Our success depends upon the success of our team, which requires us to have exceptional team members, as well as an exceptional team. Teamwork is part of our culture and is one of our core values. We believe that our employees and our customers benefit from the collective and well-coordinated efforts that result from effective employee engagement, teamwork and collaboration. We seek to foster an environment of strong employee engagement through our commitment to our employees and our team culture. A strong team culture, together with effective processes and people, allows us to consistently meet the needs of our customers and stakeholders.
We are committed to diversity, equity and inclusion in the workplace and to fostering an environment where our employees can freely bring diverse perspectives and varied experiences to work. We seek to attract the best talent and foster a culture of inclusion, teamwork, support and empowerment where all talented individuals have access to opportunities and can achieve success. Our commitment to diversity, equality and inclusion, together with our culture of belonging allows us to recruit and retain highly talented employees so that we are able to deliver exceptional results to our customers. As of the date of our most recent EEO-1 report, which was certified in May 2022, 45% of our overall U.S. workforce and 45% of our U.S. executive, manager and professional workforce was represented by women and minorities.
Certain of our businesses have incorporated the use of annual diversity assessments and goal setting targets to expand diversity within our management and employee teams, and we expect to continue in these efforts. A notable portion of our workforce includes military veterans, and we regularly engage in outreach programs tailored to military veterans.
A copy of this Form 10-K, as well as our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are available free of charge on our website, www.mastec.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file these reports with, or furnish these reports to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Copies of our Board of Directors Governance Principles and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, which applies to all of our directors, officers, including our principal executive, financial and accounting officers, and employees and includes additional criteria that are applicable to our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer and senior financial and other officers, and the charters for each of our Audit, Compensation, and Nominating, Sustainability and Corporate Governance Committees are also available on our website in the Investors section under the tab “Corporate Governance,” or may be obtained by contacting our Vice President of Investor Relations by phone at (305) 406-1815, or by email at email@example.com. We intend to provide any amendments or waivers to our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for any of our directors and senior officers on our website within four business days of any such amendment or waiver. The reference to our website address does not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained on the website and such information is not part of this report. Our reports filed with the SEC may be accessed at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
Use of our Website to Distribute Material Company Information
We use our website as a channel of distribution for important Company information. We routinely post on our website important information, including press releases, investor presentations and financial information, which may be accessed by clicking on the Investors section of www.mastec.com. We also use our website to expedite public access to time-critical information regarding our Company in advance of or in lieu of distributing a press release or a filing with the SEC disclosing the same information. Therefore, investors should look to the Investors section of our website for important and time-critical information. Visitors to our website can also register to receive automatic e-mail and other notifications alerting them when new information is made available on the Investors section of our website.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Our business is subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described below. Additional risks and uncertainties not known to us or not described below could also negatively affect our operations. If any of the risks described below or other risks that are unknown to us were to occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could suffer, and/or the trading price of our common stock could decline. We also may not be able to achieve our goals or expectations. You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all of the other information in this Form 10-K, including our Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements described above.
Risks Related to the Industries We Serve
Economic downturns or unfavorable market conditions, including from inflation, rising interest rates or supply chain disruptions and/or political or market uncertainty, including from potential recessionary or public health concerns, could reduce capital expenditures in the industries we serve or could adversely affect our customers, which could result in decreased demand or impair our customers’ ability to pay for our services.
Demand for our services has been, and will likely continue to be, cyclical in nature and vulnerable to downturns in the economy. Unfavorable market conditions, including from inflation, rising interest rates or supply chain disruptions, economic downturns, political or market uncertainty, including potential recessionary concerns, or public health matters, such as pandemics, could have a negative effect on demand for, or the profitability of, our customers’ services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The U.S. economy has been experiencing a period of higher inflation, and we have been subject to, and may continue to be subject to, the general impact of inflationary market pressures on our business, particularly with respect to fuel, labor and materials costs. The inflationary environment and current general labor shortage has resulted in wage inflation as well as increased competition for skilled labor. It is possible that our labor, fuel and materials costs could continue to increase as we expand our operations and volume of work. We have not been, and may not be able to, fully adjust our contract pricing to compensate for these cost increases, which has affected, and may continue to affect, our profitability and cash flows. Inflationary pressures and related recessionary concerns in light of governmental and central bank efforts to mitigate inflation could also cause uncertainties for our customers and negatively affect their capital expenditure and maintenance budgets. Should inflation persist or increase, interest rates may continue to rise, and inflation overall could have a significant effect on the economy in general, and the construction industry in particular, as well as create volatility in the capital markets, which could adversely affect demand for our services, as well as our profitability and cash flows and/or our ability to obtain financing. We continually monitor general economic conditions and the market conditions of the industries our customers serve and their relative health compared to the economy as a whole. Uncertain or adverse economic or political conditions, the lack of availability of debt or equity financing and/or higher interest rates could cause our customers to reduce their capital spending or, seek more favorable pricing and other contract terms and/or cause project cancellations or deferrals.
Additionally, our operations and financial results were negatively affected in 2022 by market-related supply chain disruptions. While we have taken steps to secure delivery of the materials and equipment required by our business operations, those measures may prove to be inadequate and our operations could continue to be negatively affected if the current supply chain disruptions continue or become worse. In addition, certain of our clean energy customers began experiencing regulatory-related supply chain issues in 2022 that have resulted in delays, shortages of, and increased costs for, the materials necessary to construct certain solar renewable projects, which could adversely affect our ability to perform these projects in the near-term.
The oil and gas markets have historically been and are likely to continue to be volatile. Oil and gas prices are subject to large fluctuations in response to changes in supply and demand, including from: climate change initiatives and demand for alternative energy sources; disruptions in global economic activity from public health outbreaks or pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic; legislative and regulatory changes; market and political uncertainty, including from unrest and/or military actions involving oil-producing nations, such as the ongoing conflict in Ukraine; and a variety of other factors that are beyond our control. Such market volatility can affect our customers’ investment decisions and subject us to project cancellations, deferrals or unexpected changes in the timing of project work. Demand for pipeline construction services is sensitive to levels of activity in the oil and gas industry, as well as industrial and utility customer demand and regulatory constraints.
We may face risks related to health epidemics and pandemics or other outbreaks of communicable diseases. The COVID-19 pandemic created significant volatility, uncertainty and economic disruption, including significant volatility in the U.S. economy and financial markets for several years, and negatively affected our operations during the same period. A public health epidemic or pandemic poses the risk that we or our employees, customers and/or business partners may be prevented from conducting ordinary course business activities for an indefinite period of time, including due to shutdowns or cancellations that may be mandated or requested by governmental authorities or others, or that the pandemic may otherwise interrupt or affect business activities. Our customers may not have the ability to fund capital expenditures for infrastructure, or may have difficulty obtaining financing for planned projects, which could reduce their capital spending and/or result in reduced demand for our services and/or delays or cancellations of current or planned future projects. Delay in the receipt of regulatory approvals due to pandemic-related disruptions could affect project timing and activity levels. A pandemic could also cause us to incur incremental operational costs or experience lower levels of overhead absorption from a reduction in revenue, which could negatively affect our margins and profitability. Additionally, pandemic-related economic and market disruptions could lead to greater than normal uncertainty with respect to the realization of estimated amounts, including our estimates for backlog, revenue recognition, recoverability of goodwill, intangible assets and other investments and our provisions for credit losses. A pandemic could also expose us to increased risks and costs associated with workplace health claims, or from data security and privacy risks associated with employees accessing data and systems remotely. While the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have subsided, we may continue to experience negative effects on our business and operations from possible longer-term changes in consumer and customer behavior and/or from negative economic conditions, including recent inflationary effects, supply chain disruptions and limited availability of products.
An impairment of the financial condition of one or more of our customers due to adverse conditions, as described above, could hinder our customers’ ability to pay us on a timely basis. In the past, we have incurred significant losses from customers who filed for bankruptcy or experienced financial difficulties following a general economic downturn, for which certain industry factors worsened the effect of the overall economic downturn on those customers. In difficult economic times, some of our clients may find it difficult to pay for our services on a timely basis, increasing the risk that our accounts receivable could become uncollectible and ultimately be written off. In certain cases, our clients are project-specific entities that do not have significant assets other than their interests in the project. From time to time, it may be difficult for us to collect payments owed to us by these clients. Delays in client payments may require us to make a working capital investment, which could negatively affect our cash flows and liquidity. Our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity could be materially and adversely affected if a client fails to pay us on a timely basis or defaults in making payments on a project for which we have devoted significant resources.
Changes to laws, governmental regulations and policies, including governmental permitting and tax incentives, could affect demand for our services. Additionally, demand for construction services depends on industry activity and expenditure levels, which can be affected by a variety of factors, including the effects of climate-related matters. Our inability or failure to adjust to such changes or activity could result in decreased demand for our services and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
The industries we serve are subject to effects of governmental regulation, climate change initiatives and political or social activism, any of which could result in reduced demand for our services, delays in timing of construction of projects, or cancellations of current or planned future projects. Many of our customers face stringent regulatory and environmental requirements and permitting processes, including governmental regulations and policies. Most of our communications customers are regulated by the FCC, and our energy customers are regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”), among others. In addition, our utility customers are regulated by state public utility commissions. These agencies or governments could change their interpretation of current regulations and/or may impose additional regulations, which could have an adverse effect on our customers, reduce demand for our services and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. Our customers, particularly in the oil and gas industry, could be adversely affected by regulatory initiatives or additional requirements, restrictions or legislation imposed by federal, state, local, or foreign governments, including from climate-related matters and/or any related changes in end-customer demand.
We build renewable energy infrastructure, including wind, solar and other renewable energy facilities, for which the development may be partially dependent upon federal tax credits, existing renewable portfolio standards and other tax or state incentives, including from the recently passed IIJA and IRA. The IIJA and IRA provide for funding in many of the markets in which we operate. We may not be able to obtain the expected benefits from the IIJA or IRA, and the timing of any awards under these programs is uncertain, which could add uncertainty to our backlog determinations. Elimination of, or changes to the IIJA, IRA, existing renewable portfolio standards, tax incentives or similar environmental policies could negatively affect demand for our services.
All of the above factors could result in fewer projects than anticipated or a delay in the timing of construction of these projects and the related infrastructure, which could negatively affect demand for our services and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Many of the industries we serve are highly competitive and subject to rapid technological and regulatory changes, as well as customer consolidation, any of which could result in decreased demand for our services and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Our industry is highly fragmented, and we compete with other companies in most of the markets in which we operate, ranging from small independent firms servicing local markets to larger firms servicing regional and national markets. We also face competition from existing and prospective customers that employ in-house personnel to perform some of the services we provide. There are relatively few barriers to entry into certain of the markets in which we operate and, as a result, any organization that has adequate financial resources and access to technical expertise and skilled personnel may become a competitor. Most of our customers’ work is awarded through bid processes, and our project bids may not be successful. Our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity could be materially and adversely affected if we are unsuccessful in bidding for projects or renewing our master service agreements, or if our ability to win such projects or agreements requires that we accept lower margins.
We derive a substantial portion of our revenue from customers in industries that are subject to rapid changes in technology, governmental regulation, changing consumer demands and consolidation. Technological advances in the markets we serve, including advances resulting from climate-related initiatives, could render existing projects or technologies uncompetitive or obsolete, and/or our could alter our customers’ existing operating models. Our failure to rapidly adopt and master new technologies as they are developed or adapt to changing customer requirements could reduce demand for our services. Additionally, consolidation among our customers could result in the loss of customer revenue or could negatively affect customer demand for the services we provide and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Risks Related to Our Business and Operations
Our failure to properly manage projects, or project delays, including those resulting from difficult work sites and environments, could result in additional costs or claims, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, cash flows and liquidity.
Certain of our engagements involve large-scale, complex projects that may occur over extended time periods. The quality of our performance on such projects depends in large part upon our ability to manage our client relationship and the project itself, such as the timely deployment of appropriate resources, including third-party contractors and our own personnel. Our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity could be adversely affected if we miscalculate the resources or time needed to complete a project with capped or fixed fees, or the resources or time needed to meet contractual milestones.
We perform work under a variety of conditions, including, but not limited to, challenging and hard to reach terrain and difficult site conditions. Performing work under such conditions can result in project delays or cancellations, potentially causing us to incur unanticipated costs, reductions in revenue or the payment of liquidated damages. In addition, some of our contracts require that we assume the risk should actual site conditions vary from those expected. Some of our projects involve challenging engineering, procurement and construction phases, which may occur over extended time periods. We may encounter difficulties in engineering, delays in designs or materials provided by the customer or a third-party, equipment and material delivery delays, permitting delays, schedule changes, delays from customer failure to timely obtain rights-of-way, weather-related delays, delays by subcontractors in completing their portion of projects and governmental, market and political or other factors, some of which are beyond our control and could affect our ability to complete a project as originally scheduled. In some cases, delays and additional costs may be substantial, and/or we may be required to cancel or defer a project and/or compensate the customer for the delay. We may not be able to recover any of such costs. Any such delays, cancellations, errors or other failures to meet customer expectations could result in damage claims substantially in excess of the revenue associated with a project. Delays or cancellations could also negatively affect our reputation or relationships with our customers, which could adversely affect our ability to secure new contracts.
We could also encounter project delays due to political and social activism or local opposition, which could include injunctive actions or public protests related to the siting of our projects, and such delays could adversely affect our project margins. In addition, some of our agreements require that we share in cost overages or pay liquidated damages if we do not meet project deadlines; therefore, any failure to properly estimate or manage cost, or delays in the completion of projects, could subject us to penalties, which could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. Further, any defects or errors, or failures to meet our customers’ expectations, could result in large damage claims against us. Due to the substantial cost of, and potentially long lead-times necessary to acquire certain of the materials and equipment used in our complex projects, damage claims could substantially exceed the amount we can charge for our associated services.
Our failure to recover adequately on claims against project owners, subcontractors or suppliers for payment or performance could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
We occasionally bring claims against project owners for additional costs that exceed the contract price or for amounts not included in the original contract price. Similarly, we present change orders and claims to our subcontractors and suppliers. We could incur reduced profits, cost overruns or project losses if we fail to properly document the nature of change orders or claims or are otherwise unsuccessful in negotiating an expected settlement. These types of claims can often occur due to matters such as owner-caused delays or changes from the initial project scope, which result in additional costs, both direct and indirect, or from project or contract terminations. From time to time, these claims can be the subject of lengthy and costly proceedings, and it is often difficult to accurately predict when these claims will be fully resolved. When these types of events occur and unresolved claims are pending, we may invest significant working capital in projects to cover cost overruns pending the resolution of the relevant claims. A failure to promptly recover on these types of claims could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and financial results.
Additionally, we generally warrant the work we perform following substantial completion of a project. Warranty claims have historically not been material, but such claims could potentially increase. The costs associated with such warranties, including any warranty-related legal proceedings, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We may not accurately estimate the costs associated with services provided under fixed price contracts, which could impair our financial performance. Additionally, we recognize revenue for certain projects using the cost-to-cost method of accounting; therefore, variations of actual results from our assumptions could reduce our profitability.
We derive a significant portion of our revenue from fixed price master service and other service agreements. Under these contracts, we typically set the price of our services on a per unit or aggregate basis and assume the risk that costs associated with our performance may be greater than what we estimated. We also enter into contracts for specific projects or jobs that require the installation or construction of an entire infrastructure system or specified units within an infrastructure system, many of which are priced on a fixed price or per unit basis. Our profitability would be reduced if actual costs to complete a project exceed our original estimates. Our profitability is therefore dependent upon our ability to accurately estimate the costs associated with our services and our ability to execute in accordance with our plans. A variety of factors could negatively affect these estimates or our ability to execute according to our plans, including changes in expected productivity levels, conditions at work sites differing materially from those anticipated at the time we bid on the contract and higher than expected costs of labor and/or materials. These variations, along with other risks inherent in performing fixed price contracts, could cause actual project results to differ materially from our original estimates, which could result in lower margins than anticipated, or losses, which could reduce our profitability, cash flows and liquidity.
In addition, we recognize revenue from fixed price contracts, as well as for certain projects pursuant to master and other service agreements, over time utilizing the cost-to-cost measure of progress, or the “cost-to-cost” method of accounting, under which the percentage of revenue to be recognized in a given period is measured by the percentage of costs incurred to date on the contract to the total estimated costs for the contract. The cost-to-cost method, therefore, relies on estimates of total expected contract costs. Contract revenue and total contract cost estimates are reviewed and revised on an ongoing basis as the work progresses. Adjustments arising from changes in the estimates of contract revenue or costs are reflected in the fiscal period in which such estimates are revised. Estimates are based on management’s reasonable assumptions, judgment and experience, but are subject to the risks inherent in estimates, including unanticipated delays or technical complications, changes in job performance, job conditions and management’s assessment of expected variable consideration. Variances in actual results from related estimates on a large project, or on several smaller projects, could be material. The full amount of an estimated loss on a contract is recognized in the period such losses are determined. Any such adjustments could result in reduced profitability and negatively affect our results of operations.
Amounts included in our backlog may not result in actual revenue or translate into profits. Our backlog is subject to cancellation and unexpected adjustments and is, therefore, an uncertain indicator of future operating results.
Our backlog consists of the estimated amount of revenue we expect to realize over the next 18 months from future work on uncompleted construction contracts, including new contracts under which work has not begun, as well as revenue from change orders and renewal options, amounts under master service and other service agreements and our proportionate share of estimated revenue from proportionately consolidated non-controlled contractual joint ventures. A significant portion of our 18-month backlog is attributable to master service agreements and other service agreements, none of which require our customers to purchase a minimum amount of services and are cancelable on short or no advance notice. The balance of our backlog is our estimate of work to be completed under contracts for specific projects. Estimated backlog for work under master service and other service agreements is determined based on historical trends, anticipated seasonal impacts, experience from similar projects and estimates of customer demand based on communications with our customers. These estimates may prove inaccurate, which could cause estimated revenue to be realized in periods later than originally expected, or not at all. In the past, we have experienced postponements, cancellations and reductions in expected future work due to changes in our customers’ spending plans, market volatility, changes in governmental permitting, regulatory delays and/or other factors. There can be no assurance as to our customers’ requirements or that actual results will be consistent with the estimates included in our forecasts. As a result, our backlog as of any particular date is an uncertain indicator of future revenue and earnings. In addition, contracts included in our backlog may not be profitable. If our backlog fails to materialize, our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity would be materially and adversely affected.
We derive a significant portion of our revenue from a few customers, and the loss of one or more of these customers, or a reduction in their demand for our services, could impair our financial performance. In addition, many of our contracts, including our service agreements, do not obligate our customers to undertake any infrastructure projects or other work with us, and most of our contracts may be canceled on short or no advance notice.
In the past, a small number of customers have accounted for, and in the future, could continue to account for, a significant portion of our revenue. Additionally, a significant portion of our services are provided on a non-recurring, project-by-project basis. Our revenue could significantly decline if we were to lose one or more of our significant customers, or if one or more of our customers reduce the amount of business they provide to us. In addition, our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity could be negatively affected if we complete the required work on non-recurring projects and cannot replace them with similar projects. See Note 1 - Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies, Note 13 - Segments and Related Information and Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which are incorporated by reference, for revenue concentration information.
We also derive a significant portion of our revenue from multi-year master service and other service agreements. Under these agreements, our customers have no obligation to undertake any infrastructure projects or other work with us. In addition, most of our contracts are cancelable on short or no advance notice, ranging from immediate cancellation to cancellation upon 180 days notice, even if we are not in default under the contract. This makes it difficult to estimate our customers’ demand for our services. A significant decline in the volume of work our customers request us to perform under these service agreements could negatively affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Many of our contracts, including our service agreements, are periodically open to public bid. We may not be the successful bidder on existing contracts that are re-bid. We could experience a reduction in revenue, profitability and liquidity if we fail to win a significant number of existing contracts upon re-bid, or, for services that are provided on a non-recurring basis, if we complete the required work under a significant number of projects and cannot replace them with similar projects. Additionally, from time to time, we enter into contracts that contain financing or other conditions that must be satisfied before we can begin work. Certain of these contracts may not result in revenue or profits if our customers are unable to obtain financing or to satisfy other conditions associated with such projects.
If we are unable to attract and retain qualified managers and skilled employees, we will be unable to operate efficiently, which could reduce our revenue, profitability and liquidity.
Our business is labor intensive, and some of our operations experience a high rate of employee turnover. In addition, given the nature of the highly specialized work we perform, many of our employees are trained in, and possess, specialized technical skills that are necessary to efficiently operate our business and maintain productivity and profitability. In times of low unemployment, such as the current market environment, it can be difficult for us to find appropriately skilled and qualified personnel at affordable rates and our labor costs may increase due to shortages in the supply of skilled labor and increases in compensation rates generally. We may be unable to hire and retain a sufficiently skilled labor force to support our operating requirements and growth strategy. Our labor and training expenses could increase as a result of a shortage in the supply of skilled personnel, which could adversely affect our profitability. Additionally, our business is managed by a number of key executive and operational officers, many of whom have extensive industry experience, and we are dependent upon retaining and recruiting qualified management to execute our business strategy. Lack of skilled labor, the loss of key personnel, labor shortages and/or increased turnover rates could lead to increased wage rates and increased costs to attract and retain employees, and could negatively affect our ability to operate efficiently, all of which could materially adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Our financial results are based, in part, upon estimates and assumptions that may differ from actual results.
In preparing our consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP, management makes a number of estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates and assumptions must be made because certain information used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements is either dependent on future events or cannot be calculated with a high degree of precision from data available. In some cases, these estimates are particularly uncertain and we must exercise significant judgment. See Note 1 - Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for details of our key estimates. Actual results could differ materially from the estimates and assumptions that we use, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
In addition, accounting rules and regulations are subject to review and interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”), the SEC and various other governing bodies. A change in accounting rules and regulations pursuant to FASB or SEC guidance could materially affect our reported financial results in a given period, and the adoption of new or revised accounting principles could require that we make significant changes to our systems, processes and controls, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Our business is subject to operational risk, including from operational and physical hazards that could result in substantial liabilities and weaken our financial condition.
Our business is subject to operational hazards due to the nature of services we provide and the conditions in which we operate, including electricity, fires, explosions, mechanical failures and weather-related incidents. While we invest substantial resources in occupational health and safety programs, there can be no assurance that we will be able to mitigate all such hazards or avoid significant liability. Construction projects undertaken by us expose our employees to electrical lines, pipelines carrying potentially explosive or toxic materials, heavy equipment, transportation accidents, adverse weather conditions and the risk of damage to equipment and property. These risks and hazards, among others, can cause personal injuries and loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property and equipment and other consequential damages and could lead to suspension of operations, large damage claims that could substantially exceed the amount we charge for the associated services, government enforcement actions or regulatory penalties, civil litigation or criminal prosecution. Personal injury claims for damages, including for bodily injury or loss of life, could result in substantial costs and liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. In addition, if serious accidents or fatalities occur, or if our safety records were to deteriorate, we may be restricted from bidding on certain work or obtaining new contracts and certain existing contracts could be terminated. Our safety processes and procedures are monitored by various agencies
and ratings bureaus. The occurrence of accidents in the course of our business could result in significant liabilities, employee turnover or an increase the costs of our projects, or could harm our ability to perform under our contracts, and/or our reputation and ability to enter into new customer contracts, all of which could materially and adversely affect our revenue, profitability and liquidity.
In the ordinary course of our business, we may become subject to lawsuits, indemnity or other claims, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and cash flows.
From time to time, we are subject to various claims, lawsuits and other legal proceedings brought or threatened against us in the ordinary course of our business. These actions and proceedings may seek, among other things, compensation for alleged personal injury, workers’ compensation, employment discrimination and other employment-related damages, breach of contract, property damage, environmental liabilities, liquidated damages, consequential damages, punitive damages and civil penalties or other losses, or injunctive or declaratory relief. We may also be subject to litigation in the normal course of business involving allegations of violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act and state wage and hour laws. We may also become involved in disputes with customers regarding change orders and our entitlement to revenue in accordance with the terms of the applicable customer agreements. In addition, we generally indemnify our customers for claims related to the services we provide and actions we take under our contracts, and, in some instances, we may be allocated risk through our contract terms for actions by our joint venture partners, equity investments, customers or other third parties.
Claimants may seek large damage awards and defending claims can involve significant costs. When appropriate, we establish accruals for litigation and contingencies that we believe to be adequate in light of current information, legal advice and our indemnity insurance coverages, as well as recognize revenue in light of these factors. We reassess our potential liability for litigation and contingencies, as well as revenue recognition, as additional information becomes available and adjust our accruals as necessary. We could experience a reduction in our profitability and liquidity if we do not properly estimate the amount of required accruals for litigation or contingencies, if our insurance coverage proves to be inadequate or becomes unavailable, if our self-insurance liabilities are higher than expected, or if our recognized revenue requires adjustments. The outcome of litigation and other legal proceedings is difficult to assess or quantify, as such proceedings may involve very large or indeterminate amounts and the magnitude of the potential loss or recovery may remain unknown for substantial periods of time. Furthermore, because litigation and other legal proceedings are inherently uncertain, the ultimate resolution of any such claim, lawsuit or proceeding through settlement, mediation, or court judgment could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, claims, lawsuits and proceedings may harm our reputation or divert management’s attention from our business or divert resources away from operating our business and cause us to incur significant expenses, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Our business is seasonal and affected by the spending patterns of our customers, weather conditions, natural catastrophes and timing of governmental permitting, all of which exposes us to variations in quarterly results.
Some of our customers reduce their expenditures and work order requests towards the end of the calendar year. In addition, adverse weather conditions, particularly during the winter season, can affect our ability to perform outdoor services in certain regions. As a result, we generally experience reduced revenue in the first quarter of each calendar year. Natural catastrophes such as hurricanes or other severe weather, wildfires or flooding could affect our ability to perform outdoor services or utilize equipment and crews in affected regions. The effects of climate-related matters and/or timing of governmental permitting could also result in greater seasonal and cyclical volatility than would otherwise exist under normal conditions. These events, as well as other global and/or economic effects, including public health matters, could create increased volatility in our results and/or adversely affect demand for our services and our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We maintain a workforce based upon current and anticipated workloads. We could incur significant costs and reduced profitability from underutilization of our workforce if there is a significant reduction in the level of services we provide or if contract awards are delayed or not received.
Our estimates of future performance and results of operations depend, among other factors, on whether and when we receive new contract awards, which can affect the extent to which we are able to utilize our workforce. The rate at which we are able to utilize our workforce is affected by a variety of factors, including our ability to forecast the need for our services, which allows us to maintain an appropriately sized workforce, our ability to transition employees from completed projects to new projects, our ability to manage attrition, and our need to devote resources to non-chargeable activities such as training or business development. While our estimates are based upon our good faith judgment, professional knowledge and experience, these estimates may not be accurate and can frequently change based on newly available information. In the case of large-scale projects where timing is often uncertain, it is particularly difficult to predict whether and when we will receive a contract award. The uncertainty of contract award timing can present difficulties in matching the size of our workforce to our project needs. If an expected contract award is delayed or not received, we could incur costs resulting from underutilization of our workforce, redundancy of facilities, or from efforts to right-size our workforce and/or operations, which could reduce our profitability and cash flows.
We are self-insured against many potential liabilities.
We maintain insurance policies with respect to automobile liability, general liability, employer’s liability, worker’s compensation and other type of coverages. We also manage certain of our insurance liabilities indirectly through our wholly-owned captive insurance companies, which reimburse claims up to the applicable insurance limits. Our insurance policies are subject to high deductibles or self-insured retention amounts. We are effectively self-insured for substantially all claims because most claims against us do not exceed the deductibles under our insurance policies and there can be no assurance that our insurance coverages will be sufficient or effective under all circumstances, or against all claims or liabilities to which we may be subject, which could expose us to significant liabilities and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, insurance liabilities are difficult to assess and estimate due to many factors, the effects of which are often unknown or difficult to estimate, including the severity of an injury, the determination of our liability in proportion to other parties’ liability, the number of incidents not reported and the effectiveness of our safety programs. If our insurance costs exceed our estimates of insurance liabilities, or if our insurance claims increase, or if our insurance coverage proves to be inadequate or becomes unavailable, we could experience increased exposure to risk and/or a decline in profitability and liquidity.
A failure of our internal control over financial reporting could materially affect our business.
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, including with respect to integration of the significant acquisition activity we have completed over the past few years. An internal control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. Further, the design of a control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints, and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs. Internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements due to inherent limitations in internal control systems. Any failure to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting could limit our ability to report our financial results accurately and timely or to detect and prevent fraud, and could expose us to litigation, harm our reputation, and/or adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
We rely on information, communications and data systems in our operations. Systems and information technology interruptions and/or data security breaches could adversely affect our ability to operate and our operating results or could result in harm to our reputation.
We are heavily reliant on information and communications technology, computer and other related systems in order to operate. We also rely, in part, on third-party software and information technology to run certain of our critical accounting, project management and financial information systems. From time to time, we experience system interruptions and delays. Our operations could be interrupted or delayed, or our data security could be breached, if we are unable to deploy software and hardware, gain access to, or effectively maintain and upgrade our systems and network infrastructure and/or take other steps to improve and otherwise protect our systems. In addition, our information technology and communications systems, including those associated with acquired businesses, and our operations could be damaged or interrupted by cyber-attacks and/or physical security risks. These risks include natural disasters, power loss, telecommunications failures, intentional or inadvertent user misuse or error, failures of information technology solutions, computer viruses, phishing attacks, social engineering schemes, malicious code, ransomware attacks, acts of terrorism and physical or electronic security breaches, including breaches by computer hackers, cyber-terrorists and/or unauthorized access to or disclosure of our and/or our employees’ or customers’ data. Furthermore, such unauthorized access or cyber-attacks could go unnoticed for some period of time.
These events, among others, could cause system interruptions, delays and/or the loss or release of critical or sensitive data, including the unintentional disclosure of customer, employee or our information, and could delay or prevent operations, including the processing of transactions and reporting of financial results or cause processing inefficiency or downtime. While we have security, internal control and technology measures in place to protect our systems and network, if these measures fail as a result of a cyber-attack, other third-party action, employee error, malfeasance or other security failure, and someone obtains unauthorized access to our or our employees’ or customers’ information, our reputation could be damaged, our business may suffer and we could incur significant liability, or, in some cases, we may lose access to our business data, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and /or result in significant costs, fines or litigation. Similar risks could affect our customers, subcontractors or suppliers, indirectly affecting us.
In the ordinary course of business, we have been targeted by malicious cyber-attacks, although our systems have been sufficiently resilient to prevent disruption of our operations; however, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or sabotage systems change frequently and are generally not identified until they are launched against a target, our current or future defenses may not be adequate to protect against new or revised techniques. As a result, we may be required to expend significant resources to protect against the threat of system disruptions and security breaches or to investigate and mitigate problems caused by these disruptions and breaches. Any of these events could damage our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Furthermore, while we maintain insurance policies that we consider to be adequate, our coverage may not specifically cover all types of losses or claims that may arise.
We regularly evaluate the need to upgrade, enhance and/or replace our systems and network infrastructure to protect our information technology environment, to stay current on vendor supported products and to improve the efficiency and scope of our systems and information technology capabilities. The implementation of new systems and information technology could adversely impact our operations by requiring substantial capital expenditures, diverting management’s attention, and/or causing delays or difficulties in transitioning to new systems. In addition, the implementation of new systems may not result in productivity improvements at the levels anticipated. System implementation and/or any other information technology disruptions, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated, could have an adverse effect on our business and remediation of any such disruptions could result in significant costs.
In addition, the unauthorized disclosure of confidential information and current and future laws and regulations governing data privacy may pose complex compliance challenges and/or result in additional costs. The continuing and evolving threat of cyber-attacks has also resulted in increased regulatory focus on risk management and prevention. New cyber-related regulations or other requirements, including recently proposed regulations by the SEC, could require significant additional resources and/or cause us to incur significant costs. Failure to comply with such laws and regulations could result in penalties, fines and/or legal liabilities and/or harm our reputation, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
Our subcontractors and suppliers may fail, or be unable to satisfy their obligations to us or other parties, or we may be unable to maintain these relationships, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We depend on subcontractors to perform work for some of our projects. There is a risk that we could have disputes with subcontractors arising from, among other things, the quality and timeliness of the work they perform, customer concerns, or our failure to extend existing work orders or issue new work orders under a subcontracting arrangement. Our ability to fulfill our obligations as a prime contractor could be jeopardized if any of our subcontractors fail to perform the agreed-upon services on a timely basis and/or deliver the agreed-upon supplies. In addition, the absence of qualified subcontractors with whom we have satisfactory relationships could adversely affect our ability to perform under some of our contracts, or the quality of the services we provide. Additionally, in some cases, we pay our subcontractors before our customers pay us for the related services. We could experience a material decrease in profitability and liquidity if we pay our subcontractors for work performed for customers that fail to or delay paying us for the related work. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We also rely on suppliers, equipment manufacturers and lessors to obtain or provide the materials and equipment we require to conduct our operations. Any substantial limitation on the availability of suppliers or equipment, including from economic, regulatory or market conditions, including continuing supply chain disruptions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic or other market factors, which have negatively affected our operations and financial results in 2022, could continue to negatively affect our ability to conduct our operations and/or our financial results in the future. Additionally, in an inflationary environment, such as the current market environment, in which our operations and financial results have been negatively affected, it can be difficult for us to find appropriately skilled and qualified subcontractors and suppliers at affordable rates and our costs may increase due to shortages in the supply and increases in subcontractor and supplier costs generally if we are unable to pass any such cost increases through to our customers. Any of these factors could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity in the future.
We could incur goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges, which could harm our profitability.
We have a significant amount of goodwill and intangible assets. We periodically review the carrying values of goodwill and intangible assets to determine whether such carrying values exceed their fair market values. Declines in the profitability of individual reporting units due to economic or market conditions or otherwise, including from inflation or rising interest rates, adverse changes in regulations and/or financial, competitive and other conditions, including declines in the operating performance of our reporting units, longer-term changes in consumer behavior from regulatory, climate-related or other factors, entity-specific events or other adverse changes in the key valuation assumptions contributing to the estimated fair value of our reporting units, could adversely affect the estimated fair values of the related reporting units, which could result in an impairment of the recorded balances of goodwill or intangible assets, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. See Note 1 - Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies and Note 3 - Acquisitions, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, Net in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which are incorporated by reference.
The use of a unionized workforce and any related obligations could subject us to liabilities that could adversely affect our liquidity, cash flows and results of operations.
Certain of our employees are represented by labor unions and collective bargaining agreements. Although all such collective bargaining agreements prohibit strikes and work stoppages, we cannot be certain that strikes or work stoppages will not occur despite the terms of these agreements. Strikes or work stoppages could adversely affect our relationships with our customers and cause us to lose business. Additionally, as current agreements expire, the labor unions may not be able to negotiate extensions or replacements on terms favorable to their members, or at all, or avoid strikes, lockouts or other labor actions that could affect their members. Therefore, we cannot assure you that new agreements will be reached with employee labor unions as existing contracts expire, or on desirable terms. Any action against us relating to the union workforce we employ could have a material adverse effect on our business operations, financial results, liquidity and cash flows.
Substantially all of our union and collective bargaining agreements require us to participate with other companies in multiemployer pension plans. We may be subject to substantial liabilities in the event of a complete or partial withdrawal from, or upon termination of, an underfunded U.S.-registered multiemployer pension plan, which are governed by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act ("ERISA"), as amended. In addition, the Pension Protection Act of 2006, as amended, requires underfunded pension plans to improve their funding ratios within prescribed intervals, under which benefit reductions may apply and/or participating employers could be required to make additional contributions. If a multiemployer defined benefit plan fails to satisfy certain minimum funding requirements, the Internal Revenue Service can impose on the contributing employers a non-deductible excise tax of 5% of the amount of the accumulated funding deficiency.
Based upon the information available to us from plan administrators as of December 31, 2022, several of the multiemployer pension plans in which we participate are underfunded and, as a result, we could be required to increase our contributions. The amount we may be obligated to pay or contribute in the future cannot be estimated, as these amounts are based on future levels of work of the union employees covered by these plans, investment returns and the level of underfunding of such plans. Although we do not have current plans to withdraw from any of the multiemployer pension plans in which we participate and are not aware of circumstances that would reasonably lead to material claims against us in connection with these plans, we could be assessed withdrawal liabilities, requirements to pay increased contributions and/or excise taxes in the future, any of which could adversely affect our cash flows, liquidity and results of operations.
We may have additional tax liabilities associated with our operations.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions. Management must exercise significant judgment in determining our provision for income taxes due to lack of clear and concise tax laws and regulations in certain jurisdictions. Tax laws are dynamic and subject to change as new laws are passed and new interpretations of laws are issued or applied, and such changes could materially affect our tax provisions. The federal government signed various relief measures into law in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We pursued certain of these relief provisions, which required significant judgments and estimates to be made. Our interpretations of these provisions could differ from those of the U.S. Treasury Department or the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”). The foregoing items, as well as any other future changes in tax laws, could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flow, financial condition, or results of operations.
In addition, we are audited by various U.S. and foreign tax authorities, and in the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination may be uncertain. The final outcome of income tax examinations could be materially different from our expectations and the estimates that are reflected in our consolidated financial statements, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Risks Related to Strategic Transactions and Foreign Operations
Acquisitions and strategic investments involve risks, including from integration of acquired businesses into our operations, which, if unsuccessful, could negatively affect our operating results, cash flows and liquidity and may not enhance shareholder value.
We have made, and may continue to make, strategic acquisitions and investments, including our recent acquisitions of IEA and HMG Acquisitions may expose us to operational challenges and risks, including: (i) the ability to profitably manage the acquired business or successfully
integrate the operations, internal controls, procedures, financial reporting and accounting systems of the businesses we acquire into our business operations; (ii) the ability to realize the anticipated benefits from successful integration of the acquired businesses; (iii) increased indebtedness and contingent earn-out obligations; (iv) the ability to fund cash flow shortages that may occur if anticipated revenue, profits and/or cash flows are not realized or are delayed, whether by general economic or market conditions, or other unforeseen difficulties; (v) the expense of integrating acquired businesses; (vi) the ability to retain or hire the personnel required for the successful operation of the acquired business and expanded business operations, in general; (vii) the ability to retain the business relationships of the acquired businesses; (viii) diversion of management’s attention; and (ix) the availability of funding sufficient to meet increased capital needs, among others.
Acquired companies may have liabilities that we failed, or were unable to discover in the course of performing due diligence investigations. We cannot assure you that the indemnifications granted to us by sellers of acquired companies will be sufficient in amount, scope or duration to fully offset potential liabilities associated with acquired businesses. We may learn additional information about the businesses we have acquired that could materially adversely affect us, such as unknown or contingent liabilities, unprofitable projects and liabilities related to compliance with applicable laws. Any such liabilities, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on our business. We generally require that key management and former principals of the businesses we acquire enter into non-competition agreements in our favor. If we are unable, and the courts refuse to enforce the non-competition agreement entered into by such person or persons, we might be subject to increased competition. Failure to successfully manage the operational challenges and risks associated with, or resulting from, our acquisitions could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
As with our recent acquisitions of IEA and HMG, we may pay for acquisitions or strategic investments with increased borrowings under our credit facility or the issuance of debt instruments or shares of our common stock, which could dilute the ownership interests of our common shareholders. We may decide to pursue acquisitions with which our investors may not agree. In addition, we may not be able to identify suitable acquisition or strategic investment opportunities or may be unable to obtain the required consent of our lenders and therefore, may not be able to complete such acquisitions or strategic investments. Borrowings or issuances of debt associated with these acquisitions could also result in higher levels of indebtedness, which could negatively affect our ability to service our debt within the scheduled repayment terms, or our ability to remain in compliance with our debt covenants and to maintain our investment grade credit rating. In addition, in connection with most of our acquisitions, we agree to substantial future earn-out arrangements. To the extent we defer payment of an acquisition’s purchase price through a cash earn-out arrangement, it will reduce our cash flows in subsequent periods.
We have also incurred, and expect to continue to incur, substantial expenses in connection with the integration of the operations, practices, policies and procedures of our recent acquisitions. While we expected to incur a certain level of transaction and integration expenses in connection with these acquisitions, there are a number of factors beyond our control that will affect the total amount, and the timing of, such integration activities. We expect to incur a significant amount of acquisition and integration expenses, although the exact amount and timing of such expenses is uncertain.
Additionally, we have repurchased shares of our common stock in the past and may continue to do so in the future. We cannot provide assurance that any stock repurchases will enhance shareholder value because the market price of our common stock may decline below the levels at which we repurchased such shares.
Our participation in strategic arrangements, including joint ventures and equity investments, exposes us to numerous risks.
We have certain strategic arrangements, including joint ventures and equity investments, which provide us the opportunity to combine our skills and resources with those of others to allow for the performance of particular projects for which we do not control the day-to-day operations. The success of these arrangements depends, in large part, on whether our partners satisfy their contractual and performance obligations. In certain of these arrangements, we and our partners are jointly and severally liable for liabilities and obligations of the entity or joint venture. If one of our partners fails to perform or is financially unable to bear its portion of required capital contributions or other obligations, including liabilities stemming from claims or lawsuits, we could be required to make additional investments, provide additional services or pay more than our proportionate share of a liability to make up for our partner’s shortfall. Further, if our partners do not meet their performance obligations on projects, and we are unable to adequately address such performance issues on the part of our partners, the projects could be terminated, which could result in legal liability, harm our reputation and/or impair our ability to participate in future investment and project opportunities, all of which could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. We also could be subject to a write-down of a portion or all of the net investment related to such arrangements. Market or other conditions, such as the inability of our investees to complete certain transactions, could subject us to a loss of some or all of the value of our investment. See Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies and Note 4 - Fair Value of Financial Instruments in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which are incorporated by reference, for additional information.
Our existing operations in international markets, or expanding into additional international markets, may not be successful and could expose us to risks, including failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and/or similar anti-bribery laws, which could harm our business and prospects.
We derive a small portion of our revenue from international markets. In the future, we could further expand the volume of international services we provide, as well as the foreign geographic territories in which we operate. See Note 13 - Segments and Related Information in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for foreign revenue information. Our foreign operations are presently conducted primarily in Canada, but we have performed work in various other foreign countries in the past and may expand our foreign operations in the future. Economic conditions, including those resulting from geopolitical shifts, civil unrest, acts of terrorism, wars and other conflicts, public health matters, or volatility in the global markets could adversely affect our foreign customers, their demand for our services and/or their ability to pay for our services. In addition, there are numerous risks inherent in conducting business internationally, including, but not limited to, potential instability in international markets, changes in regulatory requirements applicable to international operations, including evolving consumer protection and data use and security standards, foreign currency fluctuations, exchange controls and other limits on our ability to repatriate and reinvest earnings, political, economic and social conditions in foreign countries, tariffs and duties, and complex U.S. and foreign laws and treaties, including taxation laws and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”). These risks could restrict our ability to provide services to
foreign customers or to operate our international businesses profitably, and our overall business and results of operations could be negatively affected by our foreign activities.
The FCPA and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions prohibit U.S.-based companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We pursue opportunities in certain parts of the world that experience corruption to some degree, and, in certain circumstances, compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. Our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws, and our subcontractors, agents and others who work for us or on our behalf are expected to comply with the FCPA and other anti-bribery laws. There is no assurance that our employees and agents will comply with the FCPA, or that anti-bribery laws will protect us against liability under the FCPA or other laws for actions taken by our agents, employees and/or intermediaries. In addition, detecting, investigating and resolving actual or alleged FCPA violations is expensive and can consume significant time and attention of our senior management. We could incur severe criminal or civil penalties or other sanctions if we are found to be liable for FCPA violations, either due to our own acts or our inadvertence, or due to the acts or inadvertence of others, which could adversely affect our reputation, business, results of operations and cash flows.
Risks Related to Regulation and Compliance
We are subject to climate-related risks and risks associated with rapidly evolving stakeholder focus with respect to environmental, social and governance matters.
Climate change and climate-related matters could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. While the potential effects of climate change are highly uncertain, climate change could result in, among other things, an increase in extreme weather events, such as floods, hurricanes and wildfires, as well as changes in rainfall patterns, storm patterns and intensities and temperature levels, rising sea levels and limitations on water availability and quality. Our operating results are significantly influenced by weather; therefore, major changes in weather patterns could have a significant effect on our future operating results. Extreme weather conditions could limit the availability of resources, cause supply chain disruptions or increase the costs of our projects, reduce productivity, or could cause projects to be delayed or canceled. We could experience project cancellations, reduced demand or reduced productivity if climate change results in a significant increase in adverse weather conditions in a given period, which could negatively affect our revenue and profitability. We could also be exposed to increased risk of liability in locations potentially affected by climate change, for example, in areas where the risk of wildfires is increased. The risks associated with the physical effects of climate change could also increase our insurance premiums or reduce the amount of coverage that insurers are willing to make available under our insurance policies. In addition, limitations on access to clean water in the communities where we conduct our operations could disrupt our or our customers’ operations and result in work stoppages, project delays, reduced productivity and increased costs.
Climate change could also affect the projects our customers award. Concerns about climate change could result in potential new regulations, regulatory actions or requirements to fund energy efficiency activities, any of which could negatively affect our customers, decrease the number and scope of the projects they award and decrease demand for our services. Demand for power projects, underground pipelines or other projects could be negatively affected by significant changes in weather or by legislation or regulations governing climate change. Legislative and/or regulatory responses related to climate change could also affect the availability of goods, increase our costs or otherwise negatively affect our operations. In addition, demand for our services could be negatively affected by market and consumer response to the effects of climate change, as well from changes in technology. Our ability to compete could be affected by labor shortages resulting from lack of available skilled labor for new or emerging climate-related technologies. Additionally, if our stakeholders do not have a favorable view of our values and practices in the transition to a low-carbon economy, we could suffer reputational risk or an increase in our cost of, or a reduction in the availability of, capital. Increased or new or changing reporting and compliance requirements relating to climate change matters, including from the SEC’s recent draft proposal on climate-related disclosures, could also increase our costs and expose us to the risk of non-compliance.
There are significant environmental regulations and policies under consideration or reconsideration to encourage the use of clean energy technologies and regulate emissions of greenhouse gases to address climate change, which can cause uncertainty for our customers and our operations. We cannot predict future changes to environmental regulations and policies, nor can we predict the effects that any such changes would have on our business. The establishment of rules limiting greenhouse gas emissions or mandating lower carbon infrastructure could affect overall customer demand, reduce the need for services of certain of our business segments, as well as our ability to perform construction services or to perform these services at current levels of profitability. For example, if new regulations were adopted regulating greenhouse gas emissions, we could experience a significant increase in environmental compliance costs in light of our large fleet and the amount of construction machinery we own. New regulations may require us to acquire different equipment or change processes, and could result in a write-off or impairment of our current fleet or other equipment assets. The new equipment may not be available, or we may not be able to purchase or rent this equipment in a cost-effective manner. Compliance with any new laws or regulations relating to the reduction of greenhouse gases, including the SEC’s recent draft proposal on climate-related disclosures, which, among other requirements, could mandate disclosure of greenhouse gas emissions, could result in significant changes to our operations and a significant increase in the cost of conducting our business. In addition, our reputation could suffer and/or we could experience a reduction in the amount of future work we are awarded if our operations are perceived to result in high greenhouse gas emissions or to otherwise pose environmental risks. Reductions in project awards, project deferrals, delays or cancellations, or increases in costs related to the effects of climate change, climate change initiatives or climate change regulations could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
In addition, stakeholder expectations with respect to environmental, social and governance matters have been rapidly evolving and increasing. We could suffer reputational damage if we do not, or if it is perceived that we are not, acting responsibly in key areas, including safety, diversity and inclusion, environmental stewardship, support for our local communities and corporate governance, among others. A failure to adequately meet stakeholders’ expectations may result in loss of business and an inability to attract and retain customers and talented personnel, which could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition, and could result in an increase in our cost of capital and/or a decline in the price per share of our common stock.
A failure to comply with environmental laws could result in significant liabilities or harm our reputation, and new environmental laws or
regulations could adversely affect our business.
Some of the work we perform is in underground environments. If the field location maps supplied to us are not accurate, or if objects are present in the soil that are not indicated on the field location maps, our underground work could strike objects in the soil containing pollutants and result in a rupture and discharge of pollutants. In such a case, we could incur significant costs, including clean-up costs, and we may be liable for significant fines and damages and could suffer reputational harm. Additionally, we sometimes perform directional drilling operations below certain environmentally sensitive terrains and water bodies. Due to the inconsistent nature of terrain and water bodies, it is possible that such directional drilling could cause a surface fracture releasing subsurface materials or drilling fluid. These releases alone or, in combination with releases that may contain contaminants in excess of amounts permitted by law, could potentially expose us to significant clean up and remediation costs, damages, fines and reputational harm, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
New environmental laws and regulations, stricter enforcement of existing laws and regulations, the discovery of previously unknown contamination or leaks, or the imposition of new clean-up requirements could require us to incur significant costs or result in new or increased liabilities that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity. We may incur work stoppages to avoid violating these laws and regulations, or we may risk fines or other sanctions if we inadvertently violate these laws and regulations, which could adversely affect our business.
Our operations could affect the environment or cause exposure to hazardous substances. In addition, our properties could have environmental contamination, which could result in material liabilities.
Our operations are subject to various environmental laws and regulations, including those dealing with the handling and disposal of waste products, polychlorinated biphenyls, fuel storage, air quality and the protection of endangered species. Certain of our current and historical construction operations have used hazardous materials and, to the extent that such materials are not properly stored, contained or recycled, they could become hazardous waste. Additionally, some of our contracts require that we assume the environmental risk of site conditions and require that we indemnify our customers for any damages, including environmental damages, incurred in connection with our projects. We may be subject to claims under various environmental laws and regulations, federal and state statutes and/or common law doctrines for toxic torts and other damages, as well as for natural resource damages and the investigation and clean-up of soil, surface water, groundwater, and other media under laws such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. Such claims may arise, for example, out of current or former conditions at project sites, current or former properties owned or leased by us, or contaminated sites that have always been owned or operated by third parties. For example, we own and lease several facilities at which we store our equipment. Some of these facilities contain fuel storage tanks that may be above or below ground. If these tanks were to leak, we could be responsible for the cost of remediation as well as potential fines. Liability may be imposed without regard to fault and may be strict and joint and several, such that we may be held responsible for more than our share of any contamination or other damages, or even for the entire share, and we may be unable to obtain reimbursement from the parties that caused the contamination. The obligations, liabilities, fines and costs or reputational harm associated with these and other events could be material and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our failure to comply with the regulations of federal, state and local agencies that oversee compliance with safety and transportation regulations could reduce our revenue, profitability and liquidity.
OSHA establishes certain employer responsibilities, including maintenance of a workplace free of recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious injury, compliance with standards promulgated by OSHA and various recordkeeping, disclosure and procedural requirements. Various standards, including standards for notices of hazards and safety in excavation and demolition work, may apply to our operations. We incur capital and operating expenditures and other costs in the ordinary course of business in complying with OSHA and other state and local laws and regulations, and could incur penalties and fines in the future from violations of health and safety regulations, including, in extreme cases, criminal sanctions. We could suffer reputational harm and our customers could cancel existing contracts and not award future business to us if we were in violation of these regulations. From time to time, we have received notice from the DOT that our motor carrier operations will be monitored and that the failure to improve our safety performance could result in suspension or revocation of vehicle registration privileges. Our ability to service our customers could be damaged if we were not able to successfully resolve such issues, which could lead to a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
Management has identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting, and we may be unable to develop, implement and maintain appropriate controls in future periods.
Included in the integration of our businesses that we acquire are activities to evaluate and, as necessary, upgrade their internal control over financial reporting in light of their becoming wholly-owned subsidiaries of a publicly traded company subject to the accounting, reporting and other record keeping requirements under United States securities laws and regulations. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and SEC rules require that management annually report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and our disclosure controls and procedures. Our assessment as of December 31, 2022 included a number of companies that were acquired in 2021 but, as permitted by SEC rules, were excluded from our assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021.
As more fully described within Item 9A, “Controls and Procedures,” of this Form 10-K, in the fourth quarter of 2022 management identified material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting. As a result, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our internal controls over financial reporting were not effective as of December 31, 2022. The specific material weaknesses are described in Part II - Item 9A. “Controls and Procedures” of this 2022 Form 10-K in “Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting.” A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim consolidated financial statements would not be prevented or detected. We cannot assure you that additional material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting will not be identified in the future. Any failure to maintain or implement required new or improved controls, or any difficulties we encounter in their implementation, could result in additional material weaknesses, or could result in material misstatements in our financial statements, which could cause us to fail to meet our reporting
obligations or cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, leading to a decline in our stock price. The material weaknesses did not result in any identified misstatements to the December 31, 2022 audited financial statements, nor with respect to the financial statements for any previously reported period. BDO USA, LLP has expressed an unqualified opinion on our financial statements, which is included within Item 8. “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” of this Form 10-K.
We are in the process of developing and implementing our remediation plan for the identified material weaknesses, and we expect that this work will continue in 2023. There can be no assurance, however, as to when the remediation plan will be fully developed, when it will be fully implemented and/or the cost of its implementation. Until our remediation plan is fully implemented, we will continue to devote significant time and attention to these efforts. If we do not complete our remediation in a timely fashion, or at all, or if our remediation plan is inadequate, there is a risk that we will be unable to timely file future periodic reports with the SEC and/or that our future financial statements could contain undetected errors. Until the remediation plan is complete and implemented, we will rely upon additional interim control procedures prescribed by management, including the utilization of manual mitigating control procedures to help ensure that we fairly state our financial statements in all material respects. However, the establishment of these interim controls does not provide the same degree of assurance as a fully remediated control environment. For more information relating to our internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures, and the remediation plan that we have undertaken, see Part II - Item 9A. “Controls and Procedures” of this 2022 Form 10-K.
Risks Related to Financing Our Business
We have a significant amount of debt, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations or could affect our ability to access capital markets in the future. In addition, our debt contains restrictive covenants that may prevent us from engaging in transactions that might benefit us.
Our outstanding debt and debt service requirements could have significant consequences on our future operations, including: making it more difficult for us to meet our payment and other obligations; an event of default if we fail to comply with the financial and other restrictive covenants contained in our debt agreements, which could result in all of our debt becoming immediately due and payable; reducing the availability of our cash flows to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or strategic investments, and limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for these purposes; subjecting us to the risk of increasing interest expense on variable rate indebtedness, in particular, in the current market environment of increasing interest rates; limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to changes in our business, the industries in which we operate and the general economy; and placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt or are less leveraged.
The terms of our indebtedness contain customary events of default and covenants that prohibit us from taking certain actions without satisfying certain financial tests or obtaining the consent of the lenders. Should we be unable to comply with the terms and covenants of our indebtedness, including our credit facility, we would be required to obtain consents from our bank group, modify our credit facility or other debt instruments or secure another source of financing to continue to operate our business, none of which may be available to us on reasonable terms or at all. A default could also result in the acceleration of our obligations. In addition, these covenants may prevent us from engaging in transactions that benefit us, including responding to changing business and economic conditions or securing additional financing, if needed.
Any of these factors could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our ability to meet our payment and other obligations under our debt instruments depends on our ability to generate significant cash flow in the future, which can be subject to many factors, some of which are beyond our control. We cannot assure you that our business will generate future cash flow from operations, or that future borrowings will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to meet our payment obligations and to fund other liquidity needs. Our business is capital intensive, and if we are not able to generate sufficient cash flow to service our debt obligations, we may need to refinance or restructure our debt, sell assets, reduce or delay capital investments, or seek to raise additional capital, and some of these activities could have terms that are unfavorable or could be highly dilutive. Our ability to obtain additional financing or to refinance our existing indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any of the above factors could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity.
We may be unable to obtain sufficient bonding capacity to support certain service offerings, and the need for performance and surety bonds could reduce availability under our credit facility.
Some of our contracts require performance and payment bonds. If we are not able to renew or obtain a sufficient level of bonding capacity in the future, we may be precluded from being able to bid for certain contracts or successfully contract with certain customers. In addition, even if we are able to successfully renew or obtain performance or payment bonds, we may be required to post letters of credit in connection with the bonds, which would reduce availability under our credit facility. Furthermore, under standard terms in the surety market, sureties issue bonds on a project-by-project basis or for individual self-insurance programs and can decline to issue bonds at any time or require the posting of additional collateral as a condition to issuing or renewing any bonds. If we were to experience an interruption or reduction in the availability of bonding capacity, we may be unable to compete for or work on projects that require bonding.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
There may be future sales of our common stock or other dilution of our equity that could adversely affect the market price of our common stock and could dilute the ownership interests of our shareholders and/or lead to volatility in our common stock price.
We are not restricted from issuing additional common stock. Our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation provide that we may issue up to a total 145.0 million shares of common stock, of which approximately 78.7 million shares were outstanding as of December 31, 2022. We grow our business organically as well as through acquisition. Occasionally, we may issue shares of stock as consideration in our acquisitions, as with our recent acquisitions of IEA and HMG, and, typically, we have the option to issue shares of our common stock instead of cash as consideration for future earn-out obligations. The issuance of additional shares of our common stock in connection with future acquisitions, financing transactions, share-based payment awards or other issuances of our common stock would dilute the ownership interest of our common shareholders. Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock or other equity-related securities in the public market could depress the
market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity or equity-linked securities. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of our common stock or other equity-related securities would have on the market price of our common stock.
The market price of our common stock has been, and may continue to be, highly volatile.
The market price of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange has been volatile in recent years. We may continue to experience significant volatility in the market price of our common stock. Numerous factors could have a significant effect on the price of our common stock, including: announcements of fluctuations in our operating results or the operating results of one of our competitors; market conditions in our customers' industries, including the effects of climate-related matters; capital spending plans of our significant customers; volatility in energy and fuel prices; announcements of new or terminated customers or contracts; announcements of acquisitions by us or our competitors; changes in recommendations or earnings estimates by securities analysts; announcements of share repurchase programs, or activity under existing repurchase programs; and issuances of our common stock or other securities, including in connection with acquisition or financing transactions. In addition, the stock market continues to experience significant volatility, which can sometimes be unrelated or disproportionate to operating performance. Volatility in the market price of our common stock could cause shareholders to lose some or all of their investment in our common stock.
A small number of our existing shareholders have the ability to influence major corporate decisions.
Jorge Mas, our Chairman, and José R. Mas, our Chief Executive Officer, beneficially owned approximately 23% of the outstanding shares of our common stock as of December 31, 2022. Accordingly, they are in a position to influence the vote of most matters submitted to our shareholders, including any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets, the nomination of individuals to our Board of Directors, and a change in our control. These factors could discourage, delay or prevent a takeover attempt that shareholders might consider in their best interests or that might result in shareholders receiving a premium for their common stock.
Our articles of incorporation and certain provisions of Florida law contain anti-takeover provisions that may make it more difficult to effect a change in our control.
Certain provisions of our articles of incorporation, by-laws and the Florida Business Corporation Act could delay or prevent an acquisition or change in control and the replacement of our incumbent directors and management, even if doing so might be beneficial to our shareholders by providing them with the opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over the then market price of our common stock. For example, our Board of Directors is divided into three classes. At any annual meeting of our shareholders, our shareholders only have the right to appoint approximately one-third of the directors on our Board of Directors. Consequently, it will take at least two annual shareholder meetings to effect a change in control of our Board of Directors, which could discourage hostile takeover bids. In addition, our articles of incorporation authorize our Board of Directors, without further shareholder approval, to issue preferred stock. The issuance of preferred stock could dilute the voting power of holders of our common stock, including the granting of voting control to others, which could delay or prevent an acquisition or change in control.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our operations are conducted from different locations, primarily within the United States and Canada, including our corporate headquarters located in Coral Gables, Florida. Substantially all of these properties, including our corporate headquarters, are leased facilities, none of which is material to our operations. We believe that our existing facilities are adequate for our current and planned levels of operation.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The information set forth in Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K is incorporated by reference.
MasTec has elected to use a $1 million threshold for disclosing proceedings arising under federal, state or local environmental laws, which proceedings involve potential monetary sanctions, and in which a governmental authority is a party. MasTec believes proceedings under this threshold are not material to its business and financial condition.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
The information concerning mine safety violations or other regulatory matters required by Section 1503(a) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and Item 104 of Regulation S-K is included in Exhibit 95.1 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “MTZ.”
Holders. As of March 8, 2023, there were 1,758 holders of record of our common stock. In calculating the number of shareholders, we consider clearing agencies and security position listings as one shareholder for each agency or listing.
Dividends. We have historically not paid cash dividends and do not currently anticipate paying a cash dividend. We intend to retain future earnings for reinvestment. Our Board of Directors will make any future determination as to the payment of dividends at its discretion, and this determination will depend upon our operating results, financial condition and capital requirements, general business conditions and such other factors that the Board of Directors considers relevant. The indenture governing our senior notes, as well as our credit agreements, contains covenants that may restrict our ability to make certain payments, including the payment of dividends. See Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities. See Note 11 - Equity in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for information pertaining to our share repurchase programs. For the year ended December 31, 2022, we repurchased a total of 1,124,286 shares of our common stock under our share repurchase programs.
The following table provides information about repurchases of our common stock during the three month period ended December 31, 2022:
Total Number of Shares Purchased (a)
|Average Price Paid per Share||Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Program|
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet be Purchased under the Programs (b)
|October 1 through October 31||9,954 ||$||70.55 ||— ||$||77,326,434 |
|November 1 through November 30||12,338 ||$||86.00 ||— ||$||77,326,434 |
|December 1 through December 31||8,330 ||$||85.80 ||— ||$||77,326,434 |
|Total||30,622 ||— |
(a)Includes 9,954, 11,936, and 8,330 shares reacquired by the Company on the open market pursuant to the Amended ESPPs in October, November and December of 2022, respectively, and 402 shares withheld for income tax purposes in connection with shares issued under compensation and benefit programs in November of 2022.
(b)As of December 31, 2022, the remaining amount available for share repurchases under our March 2020 $150 million share repurchase program, which was publicly announced on March 19, 2020, totaled $77.3 million.
The performance graph below compares the cumulative five year total return for our common stock with the cumulative total return (including reinvestment of dividends) of the Standard and Poor’s 500 Composite Stock Index (“S&P 500”), and with that of the following members of a peer group consisting of Quanta Services, Inc., MYR Group, Inc., Dycom Industries, Inc., Jacobs Solutions Inc. and Primoris Services Corporation. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in our common stock, as well as that of the S&P 500 and our peer group, was $100 on December 31, 2017 and tracks it through December 31, 2022. The comparisons in the graph are based upon historical data and are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of our common stock.
The performance graph shall not be deemed incorporated by reference by any general statement incorporating by reference this Annual Report into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent we specifically incorporate this information by reference, and shall not otherwise be deemed filed under such acts.
COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among MasTec, Inc., the S&P 500 Index, and a Peer Group
*$100 invested on 12/31/17 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
Fiscal year ending December 31.
Copyright© 2023 Standard & Poor’s, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.
|As of December 31,||2017||2018||2019||2020||2021||2022|
|MasTec, Inc.||$||100.00 ||$||82.86 ||$||131.07 ||$||139.28 ||$||188.52 ||$||174.32 |
|S&P 500||$||100.00 ||$||95.62 ||$||125.72 ||$||148.85 ||$||191.58 ||$||156.89 |
|Peer Group||$||100.00 ||$||77.55 ||$||107.78 ||$||153.27 ||$||212.99 ||$||219.60 |
ITEM 6. RESERVED
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our business, financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. The discussion below contains forward-looking statements that are based upon our current expectations and is subject to uncertainty and changes in circumstances. Actual results may differ materially from these expectations due to inaccurate assumptions and known or unknown risks and uncertainties, including those identified in “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”
General Economic, Regulatory and Market Conditions
We have experienced, and may continue to experience, direct and indirect negative effects on our business and operations from negative economic, regulatory and market conditions, including recent inflationary effects on fuel prices, labor and materials costs, rising interest rates, supply chain disruptions and uncertainty from potential recessionary effects that could negatively affect demand for future projects and/or delay existing project timing or cause increased project costs. We expect 2023 to continue to be a dynamic macroeconomic environment, with elevated levels of cost inflation and interest rates. The rise in interest rates and concerns regarding a possible economic recession could affect both our cost of capital
and that of our customers, as well as our customers’ plans for capital investments and ongoing maintenance expenditures, which could negatively affect demand for our services. We may also experience negative effects from possible longer-term changes in consumer and customer behavior resulting from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The extent to which general economic, regulatory and market conditions could affect our business, operations and financial results is uncertain as it will depend upon numerous evolving factors that we may not be able to accurately predict, and, therefore, any future impacts on our business, financial condition and/or results of operations cannot be quantified or predicted with specificity.
We believe that our financial position, cash flows and operational strengths will enable us to manage the current uncertainties resulting from general economic, regulatory and market conditions. We carefully manage our liquidity and will continue to monitor any potential effects from changing economic, regulatory and market conditions on our financial results, cash flows and/or working capital and will take appropriate actions in efforts to mitigate any impacts.
See Item 1. “Business” for discussion pertaining to our business and reportable segments.
In 2021, we initiated a significant transformation of our end-market business operations to support the nation’s transition to low-carbon energy sources and position the company for expected future opportunities associated with this transition. This transformation has included significant business combination activity, including expansion of our scale and capacity in renewable energy, power delivery and heavy civil services, which activity has resulted in significant acquisition and integration costs in both our existing and recently acquired operations.
Recent acquisitions. During 2022, we completed five acquisitions including: (i) within our Clean Energy and Infrastructure segment: IEA, a leading utility-scale infrastructure solutions provider with expertise in renewable energy and heavy civil projects, as well as rail and environmental remediation services; and a company that specializes in the production of concrete and aggregate products; (ii) within our Oil and Gas segment: an infrastructure construction company focusing on water, sewer and utility projects and with expertise in excavation and site work; (iii) within our Communications segment: a telecommunications company specializing in wireline services; and (iv) within our Power Delivery segment: a company specializing in the construction of overhead high voltage transmission lines.
During 2021, we completed fourteen acquisitions including: (i) within our Power Delivery segment: HMG, an industry-leading utility services firm providing critical infrastructure design, construction and maintenance services to the power and renewables, telecommunications, gas distribution and pipeline services end-markets. In the first quarter of 2022, we integrated and began reporting the results of HMG within our Power Delivery, Communications and Oil and Gas segments, as appropriate, and began reporting HMG’s corporate functions within our Corporate results. See Note 13 - Segments and Related Information. Additionally, we acquired an electric utility distribution contractor; a company specializing in vegetation management services for the electric and telecommunications industries; and INTREN, a premier specialty utility contractor primarily providing electrical distribution network services under various multi-year master service agreements to some of the nation’s largest utilities, municipalities and cooperatives; (ii) within our Clean Energy and Infrastructure segment: a heavy civil infrastructure construction company focusing on transportation projects; and a heavy industrial general contractor with concrete, piping and electrical capabilities; (iii) within our Communications segment: a telecommunications company specializing in cabling, plant and other network services; a telecommunications and utility technical services company focusing on outside plant telecommunications engineering; a telecommunications and cable services provider; a utilities infrastructure company, providing power line construction and repair services; and business operations specializing in install-to-the-home services; and (iv) within our Oil and Gas segment: an infrastructure construction company focusing on water, sewer and utility projects, along with expertise in site work; a company specializing in environmental services for energy infrastructure and heavy civil projects; and a pipeline contractor focusing on integrity and maintenance work related to gas distribution infrastructure.
During 2020, we completed five acquisitions. These acquisitions included the equity interests of two entities, one that specializes in heavy civil infrastructure that is included within our Clean Energy and Infrastructure segment, and one that specializes in utility service and telecommunications construction that is included within our Communications segment. We also acquired the assets of three entities, one that specializes in wireless telecommunications and one that specializes in install-to-the-home services, both of which are included within our Communications segment and one that specializes in electrical transmission services that is included within our Power Delivery segment.
For additional information, see Note 3 - Acquisitions, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, Net in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference.
Economic, Industry and Market Factors
We closely monitor the effects of changes in economic and market conditions on our customers, including the potential effects of inflation, recessionary concerns, regulatory and climate-related matters. Changes in general economic and market conditions can affect demand for our customers’ products and services, which can increase or decrease our customers’ planned capital and maintenance budgets in certain end-markets. Market, regulatory and industry factors could affect demand for our services, or the cost to provide such services, including (i) changes to our customers’ capital spending plans, including any potential effects from inflation, recessionary concerns or supply chain issues, or from rising interest rates and/or public health matters; (ii) new or changing regulatory requirements, governmental policy changes, and customer or industry initiatives, including with respect to climate change, environmental or sustainability concerns, and/or from changes in governmental permitting; (iii) economic, political or other market developments or uncertainty, including access to capital for customers in the industries we serve and/or the ongoing military conflict in Ukraine; (iv) changes in technology, tax and other incentives; and (v) mergers, acquisitions or other business transactions among the customers we serve. Changes in demand for, and fluctuations in market prices for, oil, gas and other energy sources can affect demand for our services. In particular, such changes can affect the level of activity in energy generation projects, including from renewable energy sources, as well as pipeline construction and carbon capture projects. The availability of transportation and transmission capacity can also affect demand for our services, including energy generation, electric grid and pipeline construction projects. These fluctuations, as well as the highly competitive nature of our industry, can result in changes in the levels of activity, the project mix, and/or the profitability of the services we provide. In the face of increased pricing pressure or other market developments, we strive to maintain our profit margins through productivity improvements, cost reduction programs and/or business streamlining efforts. Market developments, including rising fuel, labor and materials costs, have had, and could continue to have, a negative effect on our profitability, to the extent that we have not been, and in the future are not, able to pass these costs through to our customers. While we actively monitor economic, industry and market factors that could affect our business, we cannot predict the effect that changes in such factors could have on our future results of operations, liquidity and cash flows, and we may be unable to fully mitigate, or benefit from, such changes.
Effect of Seasonality and Cyclical Nature of Business
Our revenue and results of operations can be subject to seasonal and other variations. These variations are influenced by weather, customer spending patterns, bidding seasons, project schedules, holidays, regulatory matters and/or timing, in particular, for large non-recurring projects, and the effects of market uncertainty or disruptions, as described within “Economic, Industry and Market Factors,” above. Typically, our revenue is lowest at the beginning of the year and during the winter months because cold, snowy or wet conditions can delay projects. Revenue is generally higher during the summer and fall months due to increased demand for our services when favorable weather conditions exist in many of the regions in which we operate, but continued cold and wet weather can often affect second quarter productivity. In the fourth quarter, many projects tend to be completed by customers seeking to spend their capital budgets before the end of the year, which generally has a positive effect on our revenue. However, the holiday season and inclement weather can cause delays, which can reduce revenue and increase costs on affected projects. Any quarter may be positively or negatively affected by adverse or unusual weather patterns and/or the effects of climate-related matters, including warm winter weather, excessive rainfall, flooding or natural catastrophes such as wildfires, hurricanes or other severe weather, making it difficult to predict quarterly revenue and margin variations.
Additionally, our industry can be highly cyclical. Fluctuations in end-user demand within the industries we serve, or in the supply of services within those industries, can affect demand for our services. As a result, our business may be adversely affected by industry declines or by delays in new projects. Variations in project schedules or unanticipated changes in project schedules, in particular, in connection with large construction and installation projects, can create fluctuations in revenue, which may adversely affect us in a given quarter, even if not for the full year. In addition, revenue from master service and other service agreements, while generally predictable, can be subject to volatility, including from changes in customer demand, customer revenue mix, or project timing. The financial condition of our customers and their access to capital; variations in project margins; regional, national and global economic, political and market conditions; regulatory or environmental influences, including climate-related matters; and acquisitions, dispositions or strategic arrangements can also materially affect quarterly results in a given period. Accordingly, our operating results in any particular period may not be indicative of the results that can be expected for any other period.
Understanding Our Results of Operations
Revenue. We primarily provide engineering, building, installation, maintenance and upgrade services to our customers. We derive revenue from projects performed under master and other service agreements as well as from contracts for specific projects requiring the construction and installation of an entire infrastructure system or specified units within an infrastructure system. See Item 1. “Business” for discussion of our business and revenue-generating activities and “Comparison of Fiscal Year Results” below for revenue results by reportable segment.
Costs of Revenue, Excluding Depreciation and Amortization. Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization, consists principally of salaries, employee incentives and benefits, subcontracted services, equipment and facility rentals, repairs, fuel and other equipment expenses, materials costs, parts, supplies and insurance expenses. Project profit is calculated by subtracting a project’s costs of revenue, including project-related depreciation, from project revenue. Project profitability and corresponding project margins will generally be reduced if actual costs to complete a project exceed our project cost estimates and we are unable to pass the increased costs through to our customers. Estimated losses on contracts, or the excess of estimated costs to complete a contract over the contract’s remaining revenue, are recognized in the period in which such losses are determined. Factors impacting our costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization, and project profit, include:
Project Mix. The mix of revenue derived from the projects we perform impacts overall project margins, as margin opportunities can vary by project. For example, installation work, which is often performed on a fixed price basis, has a higher level of margin risk than maintenance or upgrade work, which is often performed under pre-established or time and materials pricing arrangements. As a result, changes in project mix between installation work and maintenance or upgrade services can affect our project margins in a given period. Our project mix by industry can also affect our overall margins, as project margins can vary by industry and over time.
Seasonality, Weather and Geographic Mix. Seasonal patterns, which can be affected by weather conditions, can have a significant effect on project margins. Adverse or favorable weather conditions can affect project margins in a given period. For example, extended periods of rain or snowfall can negatively affect revenue and project margins due to reduced productivity from projects being delayed or temporarily halted. Conversely, when weather remains dry and temperatures are accommodating, more work can be done, sometimes with less cost, which can favorably affect project margins. In addition, the mix of business conducted in different geographic areas can affect project margins due to the particular characteristics of the physical locations where work is being performed, such as mountainous or rocky terrain versus open terrain. Site conditions, including unforeseen underground conditions, can also affect project margins.
Price and Performance Risk. Overall project margins may fluctuate due to project pricing and job conditions, changes in the cost of labor and materials, crew availability, job productivity and work volume. Job productivity can be affected by quality of the work crew and equipment, the quality of engineering specifications and designs, availability of skilled labor, environmental or regulatory factors, customer decisions or delays and crew productivity. Crew productivity can be influenced by weather conditions and job terrain, such as whether project work is in a right of way that is open or one that has physical obstructions or legal encumbrances.
Subcontracted Resources. Our use of subcontracted resources in a given period is dependent upon activity levels and the amount and location of existing in-house resources and capacity. Project margins on subcontracted work can vary from those on self-perform work. As a result, changes in the availability and mix of subcontracted resources versus self-perform work can affect our overall project margins.
Material versus Labor Costs. In many cases, our customers are responsible for supplying their own materials on projects; however, under certain contracts, we may agree to provide all or part of the required materials. Project margins are typically lower on projects where we furnish a significant amount of materials due to the fact that margins on materials are generally lower than margins on labor costs. Therefore, increases in the percentage of work with significant materials requirements could decrease our overall project margins.
General and Administrative Expense. General and administrative expenses consist principally of compensation and benefit expenses, travel expenses and related costs for our finance, benefits, insurance and risk management, legal, facilities, information technology services and executive functions. General and administrative expenses also include non-cash stock-based compensation expense, outside professional and accounting fees, expenses associated with information technology used in administration of the business, gains or losses from the disposal of property and equipment, acquisition costs, including certain costs related to acquisition integration, business streamlining, and, from time to time, certain restructuring charges.
Interest Expense, Net. Interest expense, net, consists of contractual interest expense on outstanding debt obligations, amortization of deferred financing costs and other interest expense, including interest expense related to financing arrangements and mandatorily redeemable non-controlling interests. Interest expense is offset, in part, by interest earned on cash and other investments.
Other Income or Expense. Other income or expense consists primarily of gains or losses from changes to estimated Earn-out accruals, certain legal/other settlements, certain purchase accounting adjustments, and gains or losses, or changes in estimated recoveries, from certain assets, including financial instruments, and certain liabilities.
Financial Performance Metrics
Our senior management team regularly reviews certain key financial performance metrics within our business, including:
•revenue and profitability on an overall basis, by reportable segment and for selected projects;
•revenue by customer and by contract type;
•costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization; general and administrative expenses; depreciation and amortization; interest expense, net; other income or expense; and provision for income taxes;
•earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) and adjusted EBITDA, as defined in our non-U.S. GAAP financial measures discussion following the “Comparison of Fiscal Year Results” section below;
•earnings per share and adjusted earnings per share, as defined in our non-U.S. GAAP financial measures discussion;
•days sales outstanding, net of contract liabilities, and days payable outstanding;
•interest and debt service coverage ratios; and
•liquidity and cash flows.
Management’s analysis includes detailed discussions of proposed investments in new business opportunities or property and equipment, productivity improvement efforts, acquisition integration efforts, strategic arrangement opportunities and working capital and other capital management efforts. Measuring these key performance indicators is an important tool used by management to make informed and timely operational decisions, which we believe can help us improve our performance.
Critical Accounting Estimates
This discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, including the potential future effects of macroeconomic trends and events, such as inflation and interest rate levels; supply chain disruptions; uncertainty from potential recessionary effects; climate-related matters; market, industry and regulatory factors, including permitting issues; global events, such as the ongoing military conflict in Ukraine; and public health matters. These estimates form the basis for making judgments about our operating results and the carrying values of
assets and liabilities, that are not readily apparent from other sources. Given that management estimates, by their nature, involve judgments regarding future uncertainties, actual results could differ materially from these estimates if conditions change or if certain key assumptions used in making these estimates ultimately prove to be inaccurate. Our accounting policies and critical accounting estimates are reviewed periodically by the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.
We believe that our accounting estimates pertaining to: the recognition of revenue and project profit or loss, which we define as project revenue, less project costs of revenue, including project-related depreciation, in particular, on construction contracts accounted for under the cost-to-cost method, for which the recorded amounts require estimates of costs to complete and the amount and probability of variable consideration included in the contract transaction price; fair value estimates, including those related to acquisitions, valuations of goodwill, intangible assets and acquisition-related contingent consideration and other liabilities; equity investments; income taxes; self-insurance liabilities; and litigation and other contingencies, are the most critical in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements as they are important to the portrayal of our financial condition and require significant or complex judgment and estimates on the part of management. Actual results could, however, vary materially from these accounting estimates.
Refer to Note 1 - Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for a more detailed discussion of our significant accounting policies and critical accounting estimates.
We recognize revenue from contracts with customers when, or as, control of promised services and goods is transferred to customers. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for the services and goods transferred. We primarily recognize revenue over time utilizing the cost-to-cost measure of progress.
Contracts. We derive revenue primarily from construction projects performed under: (i) master and other service agreements, which generally provide a menu of available services in a specific geographic territory that are utilized on an as-needed basis, and are typically priced using either a time and materials or a fixed price per unit basis; and (ii) contracts for specific projects requiring the construction and installation of an entire infrastructure system or specified units within an infrastructure system, which are subject to multiple pricing options, including fixed price, unit price, time and materials, or cost plus a markup.
The total contract transaction price and cost estimation processes used for recognizing revenue over time under the cost-to-cost method is based on the professional knowledge and experience of our project managers, engineers, operational and financial professionals. Management reviews estimates of total contract transaction price and total project costs on an ongoing basis. Changes in job performance, job conditions and management’s assessment of expected variable consideration are factors that influence estimates of the total contract transaction price, total costs to complete those contracts and our profit recognition. Changes in these factors could result in revisions to revenue in the period in which the revisions are determined, which could materially affect our consolidated results of operations for that period. Provisions for losses on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses are determined. For the year ended December 31, 2022, project profit was affected by less than 5% as a result of changes in contract estimates included in projects that were in process as of December 31, 2021. Revenue recognized for the year ended December 31, 2022 as a result of changes in total contract transaction price estimates, including from variable consideration, from performance obligations satisfied or partially satisfied in prior periods, totaled approximately $13.8 million.
Performance Obligations. A performance obligation is a contractual promise to transfer a distinct good or service to a customer. The transaction price of a contract is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when or as the performance obligation is satisfied. Our contracts often require significant services to integrate complex activities and equipment into a single deliverable, and are therefore generally accounted for as a single performance obligation, even when delivering multiple distinct services. Contract amendments and change orders, which are generally not distinct from the existing contract, are typically accounted for as a modification of the existing contract and performance obligation. The majority of our performance obligations are completed within one year.
When more than one contract is entered into with a customer on or close to the same date, management evaluates whether those contracts should be combined and accounted for as a single contract, as well as whether those contracts should be accounted for as one, or more than one, performance obligation. This evaluation requires significant judgment and is based on the facts and circumstances of the various contracts.
Variable Consideration. Transaction prices for our contracts may include variable consideration, which comprises items such as change orders, claims and incentives. Management estimates variable consideration for a performance obligation utilizing estimation methods that we believe best predict the amount of consideration to which we will be entitled. Variable consideration is included in the estimated transaction price if it is probable that when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is resolved, there will not be a significant reversal of the cumulative amount of revenue that has been recognized. Management’s estimates of variable consideration and the determination of whether to include estimated amounts in transaction prices are based largely on engineering studies and legal advice, past practices with the customer, specific discussions, correspondence or preliminary negotiations with the customer and all other relevant information that is reasonably available at the time of the estimate. The effect of variable consideration on the transaction price of a performance obligation is typically recognized as an adjustment to revenue on a cumulative catch-up basis, as such variable consideration, which typically pertains to changed conditions and scope, is generally for services encompassed under the existing contract. To the extent unapproved change orders, claims and other variable consideration reflected in transaction prices are not resolved in our favor, or to the extent incentives reflected in transaction prices are not earned, there could be reductions in, or reversals of, previously recognized revenue.
As of December 31, 2022, we included approximately $271 million of change orders and/or claims in transaction prices for certain contracts that were in the process of being resolved in the ordinary course of business, including through negotiation, arbitration and other proceedings. These transaction price adjustments, when earned, are included within contract assets or accounts receivable, net of allowance, as appropriate. As of December 31, 2022, these change orders and/or claims primarily related to certain projects in our Clean Energy and Infrastructure and Power Delivery segments and include amounts related to our recently acquired businesses. We actively engage with our customers to complete
the final approval process, and generally expect these processes to be completed within one year. Amounts ultimately realized upon final agreement by customers could be higher or lower than such estimated amounts.
The determination of the fair value of net assets acquired in a business combination and estimates of acquisition-related contingent consideration, which, for our acquisitions primarily consist of “earn-out” liabilities, requires estimates and judgments of future cash flow expectations for the acquired business and the related identifiable tangible and intangible assets. Fair values of net assets acquired are calculated using expected cash flows and industry-standard valuation techniques. Fair values of earn-out liabilities are estimated using income approaches such as discounted cash flows or option pricing models.
Due to the time required to gather and analyze the necessary data for each acquisition, U.S. GAAP provides a “measurement period” of up to one year in which to finalize these fair value determinations. During the measurement period, preliminary fair value estimates may be revised if new information is obtained about the facts and circumstances existing as of the date of acquisition, or based on the final net assets and working capital of the acquired business, as prescribed in the applicable purchase agreement. Such adjustments may result in the recognition of, or an adjustment to the fair values of, acquisition-related assets and liabilities and/or consideration paid, and are referred to as “measurement period” adjustments. Measurement period adjustments are recorded to goodwill. Other revisions to fair value estimates for acquisitions are reflected as income or expense, as appropriate. See Note 3 - Acquisitions, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, Net in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for information pertaining to acquisition-related fair value adjustments.
Significant changes in the assumptions or estimates used in the underlying valuations, including the expected profitability or cash flows of an acquired business, could materially affect our operating results in the period such changes are recognized.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
We have goodwill and intangible assets that have been recorded in connection with our acquisitions of businesses. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized, but instead are tested for impairment at least annually. Finite-lived intangible assets are amortized over their useful lives, which are generally based on contractual or legal rights, in a manner consistent with the pattern in which the related benefits are expected to be consumed. We review long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable.
We perform our annual impairment tests of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets during the fourth quarter of each year, and on a quarterly basis, we monitor these assets for potential indicators of impairment. Goodwill is required to be tested for impairment at the reporting unit level. A reporting unit is an operating segment, or one level below the operating segment, which is referred to as a component. We combine three of the components of our Power Delivery operating segment into one reporting unit. All of our other components each comprise one reporting unit.
Following is a summary of goodwill and intangible assets by segment as of December 31, 2022, which includes indefinite-lived intangible assets within the Clean Energy and Infrastructure segment totaling approximately $34.5 million:
|Communications||Clean Energy and Infrastructure||Oil and Gas||Power Delivery||Total|
|Goodwill (in millions)||$||606.1 ||$||703.3 ||$||465.5 ||$||270.1 ||$||2,045.0 |
| Percentage of total||29.6 ||%||34.4 ||%||22.8 ||%||13.2 ||%||100.0 ||%|
|Other intangible assets, net (in millions)||$||65.0 ||$||402.5 ||$||85.6 ||$||393.2 ||$||946.3 |
| Percentage of total||6.9 ||%||42.5 ||%||9.0 ||%||41.6 ||%||100.0 ||%|
For the year ended December 31, 2022, we performed a qualitative assessment for our goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets by examining relevant events and circumstances that could have an effect on their fair values, such as: macroeconomic conditions, including inflation and interest rates, industry and market conditions, including the potential effects of longer-term changes in consumer behavior from regulatory, climate-related, or other factors, entity-specific events, financial performance and other relevant factors or events that could affect earnings and cash flows.
Based on the results of the qualitative assessments for the year ended December 31, 2022, we performed quantitative testing for (i) four reporting units within our Oil and Gas operating segment; (ii) one reporting unit within our Power Delivery operating segment; and (iii) one reporting unit within our Clean Energy and Infrastructure operating segment. Factors considered by management in determining the reporting units for which quantitative assessments were performed included the effects of current or expected changes in market conditions on the future business outlook, including the potential future effects of macroeconomic, industry and market trends and events, as described above, as well as the effects of uncertainty from potential recessionary concerns; success rates on new project awards; and levels of operating activity.
For the reporting units for which quantitative testing was performed, we estimated their fair values using a combination of market and income approaches using Level 3 inputs. Under the market approach, fair values were estimated using published market multiples for comparable companies and applying them to revenue and EBITDA. Under the income approach, a discounted cash flow methodology was used, considering: (i) management estimates, such as projections of revenue, operating costs and cash flows, taking into consideration historical and anticipated financial results; (ii) general economic and market conditions; and (iii) the impact of planned business and operational strategies. We believe the assumptions used in our quantitative goodwill impairment tests are reflective of the risks inherent in the business models of our reporting units and within our industry. Estimated discount rates were determined using the weighted average cost of capital for each reporting unit at the time of the analysis, taking into consideration the risks inherent within each reporting unit individually. Significant assumptions used in testing the reporting units included terminal values based on a terminal growth rate of 3.0%, five to nine years of discounted cash flows prior to the terminal value, and a
discount rate of 13.0%. Based on the results of the quantitative assessment, the estimated fair values of all but one reporting unit within our Oil and Gas operating segment were determined to substantially exceed their carrying values. One reporting unit in our Oil and Gas operating segment, which had approximately $37.5 million of goodwill, had an estimated fair value that exceeded its carrying value by approximately 14%. A 100 basis point increase in the discount rate would not have resulted in any of the reporting units’ carrying values exceeding their fair values.
As of December 31, 2022, we believe that the recorded balances of goodwill and intangible assets are recoverable; however, significant changes in the assumptions or estimates used in our analyses, such as market conditions or a reduction in profitability and/or cash flows, and/or for intangible assets, changes in other asset characteristics, could result in non-cash goodwill and/or intangible asset impairment charges in future periods. See Note 1 - Business, Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies and Note 3 - Acquisitions, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, Net in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which are incorporated by reference, for additional discussion.
Our investment and strategic arrangements include equity interests in various business entities and participation in contractual joint ventures. Equity investments, other than those accounted for as equity method investments or those that are proportionately consolidated, are measured at fair value if their fair values are readily determinable. Equity investments that do not have readily determinable fair values are measured at cost, adjusted for changes from observable market transactions, if any, less impairment, which is referred to as the “adjusted cost basis”. This impairment evaluation considers a variety of factors, including the earnings performance of the related investments, as well as the economic environment and market conditions in which the investees operate. Significant changes in any of these factors could result in impairment charges in future periods.
Our provision for income taxes uses an effective tax rate based on annual pre-tax income, statutory tax rates, permanent tax differences and tax planning opportunities in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Significant factors that can affect our annual effective tax rate include our assessment of certain tax matters, the location and amount of taxable earnings, changes in certain non-deductible expenses and expected credits. Although we believe our provision for income taxes is correct and the related assumptions are reasonable, the final outcome of tax matters could be materially different from what we currently anticipate, which could result in significant costs or benefits to us. See Note 12 - Income Taxes in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for additional discussion.
In the ordinary course of business, there is inherent uncertainty in quantifying income tax positions. We assess our income tax positions and record tax benefits for all years subject to examination based on our evaluation of the facts, circumstances and information available at the reporting date. For those tax positions where it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, we have recognized the largest amount of tax benefit with a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. For those income tax positions where it is not more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, no tax benefit has been recognized in our financial statements.
We file income tax returns in numerous tax jurisdictions, including U.S. federal, most U.S. states and certain foreign jurisdictions. Although we believe our calculations for tax returns are correct and the positions taken thereon are reasonable, the final outcome of income tax examinations could be materially different from our expectations and the estimates that are reflected in our consolidated financial statements, which could have a material effect on our results of operations, cash flows and liquidity in the related period.
We are self-insured up to the amount of our deductible for our insurance policies. Liabilities under our insurance programs are accrued based upon our estimate of the ultimate liability for claims, with assistance from third-party actuaries. The determination of such claims and expenses and the appropriateness of the related liability is reviewed and updated quarterly. These insurance liabilities are, however, difficult to assess and estimate due to many factors, the effects of which are often unknown or difficult to estimate, including the severity of an injury, the determination of our liability in proportion to other parties and the number of incidents not reported. Accruals are based upon known facts and historical trends. Although we believe such accruals are adequate, a change in experience or actuarial assumptions could materially affect our results of operations in a particular period.
Litigation and Contingencies
Accruals for litigation and contingencies are based on our assessment, including advice of legal counsel, of the expected outcome of litigation or other dispute resolution proceedings and/or the expected resolution of contingencies. Significant judgment is required in both the determination of probability of loss and the determination as to whether the amount is reasonably estimable. Accruals are based on information available at the time of the assessment due to the uncertain nature of such matters. As additional information becomes available, we reassess potential liabilities related to pending claims and litigation and may revise our previous estimates, which could materially affect our results of operations in a given period.
We believe that we are well-positioned to benefit from significant opportunities in each of our business segments. Please see Item 1 “Business - Industry Trends” for additional information on the outlook for the industries we serve and a detailed discussion of our market opportunities. Our future results could be adversely affected by the matters discussed in the “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Item 3. “Legal Proceedings” of this Form 10-K.
Comparison of Fiscal Year Results
The following table, which may contain slight summation differences due to rounding, reflects our consolidated results of operations in dollar and percentage of revenue terms for the periods indicated (dollar amounts in millions). Our consolidated results of operations are not necessarily comparable from period to period due to the effect of recent acquisitions and certain other items, which are described in the comparison of results section below. In this discussion, “acquisition” results are defined as results from acquired businesses for the first twelve months following the dates of the respective acquisitions, with the balance of results for a particular item attributed to “organic” activity.
|For the Years Ended December 31,|
|Revenue||$||9,778.0 ||100.0 ||%||$||7,951.8 ||100.0 ||%||$||6,321.0 ||100.0 ||%|
|Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization||8,586.3 ||87.8 ||%||6,805.7 ||85.6 ||%||5,270.9 ||83.4 ||%|
|Depreciation ||371.2 ||3.8 ||%||345.6 ||4.3 ||%||258.8 ||4.1 ||%|
|Amortization of intangible assets||135.9 ||1.4 ||%||77.2 ||1.0 ||%||38.9 ||0.6 ||%|
|General and administrative expenses||559.4 ||5.7 ||%||307.0 ||3.9 ||%||303.0 ||4.8 ||%|
|Interest expense, net||112.3 ||1.1 ||%||53.4 ||0.7 ||%||59.6 ||0.9 ||%|
|Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates, net||(28.8)||(0.3)||%||(33.8)||(0.4)||%||(29.7)||(0.5)||%|
|Loss on extinguishment of debt||— ||— ||%||— ||— ||%||5.6 ||0.1 ||%|
|Other income, net||(1.4)||(0.0 ||)%||(33.4)||(0.4)||%||(11.3)||(0.2)||%|
|Income before income taxes||$||43.1 ||0.4 ||%||$||430.1 ||5.4 ||%||$||425.2 ||6.7 ||%|
|Provision for income taxes||(9.2)||(0.1)||%||(99.3)||(1.2)||%||(102.5)||(1.6)||%|
|Net income||$||33.9 ||0.3 ||%||$||330.7 ||4.2 ||%||$||322.7 ||5.1 ||%|
|Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests||0.5 ||0.0 ||%||1.9 ||0.0 ||%||(0.1)||(0.0 ||)%|
|Net income attributable to MasTec, Inc.||$||33.4 ||0.3 ||%||$||328.8 ||4.1 ||%||$||322.8 ||5.1 ||%|
We review our operating results by reportable segment. See Note 13 - Segments and Related Information in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference. Our reportable segments are: (1) Communications; (2) Clean Energy and Infrastructure; (3) Oil and Gas; (4) Power Delivery and (5) Other. Management’s review of segment results includes analyses of trends in revenue, EBITDA and EBITDA margin. EBITDA for segment reporting purposes is calculated consistently with our consolidated EBITDA calculation. See the discussion of our non-U.S. GAAP financial measures, including certain adjusted non-U.S. GAAP measures, as described below, following the comparison of results discussion below. The following table presents revenue, EBITDA and EBITDA margin by segment for the periods indicated (dollar amounts in millions):
|For the Years Ended December 31,|
|Revenue||EBITDA and EBITDA Margin|
|Communications||$||3,233.7 ||$||2,551.1 ||$||2,512.2 ||$||327.1 ||10.1 ||%||$||269.5 ||10.6 ||%||$||270.1 ||10.7 ||%|
|Clean Energy and Infrastructure||2,618.6 ||1,865.0 ||1,526.9 ||102.8 ||3.9 ||%||75.0 ||4.0 ||%||80.4 ||5.3 ||%|
|Oil and Gas||1,219.6 ||2,540.5 ||1,789.8 ||163.5 ||13.4 ||%||557.6 ||21.9 ||%||510.9 ||28.5 ||%|
|Power Delivery||2,725.2 ||1,016.8 ||506.5 ||202.9 ||7.4 ||%||68.0 ||6.7 ||%||14.9 ||2.9 ||%|
|Other||— ||0.0 ||0.6 ||31.8 ||NM||33.8 ||NM||30.7 ||NM|
|Eliminations||(19.1)||(21.6)||(15.0)||— ||— ||— ||— ||— ||— |
|Segment Total||$||9,778.0 ||$||7,951.8 ||$||6,321.0 ||$||828.1 ||8.5 ||%||$||1,003.8 ||12.6 ||%||$||907.0 ||14.3 ||%|
|Corporate||— ||— ||— ||(165.6)||— ||(97.5)||— ||(124.5)||— |
|Consolidated Total||$||9,778.0 ||$||7,951.8 ||$||6,321.0 ||$||662.5 ||6.8 ||%||$||906.3 ||11.4 ||%||$||782.5 ||12.4 ||%|
NM - Percentage is not meaningful
(a) For the year ended December 31, 2022, Communications, Clean Energy and Infrastructure, Oil and Gas and Power Delivery EBITDA included $4.7 million, $6.4 million, $8.0 million and $39.0 million, respectively, of acquisition and integration costs related to our recent acquisitions, and Corporate EBITDA included $27.9 million of such costs. For the year ended December 31, 2021, Corporate EBITDA included $3.6 million of such acquisition and integration costs.
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2022 and 2021
Revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2022, consolidated revenue totaled $9,778 million as compared with $7,952 million in 2021, an increase of $1,826 million, or 23%. Revenue increased in our Power Delivery segment by $1,708 million, or 168%, in our Clean Energy and Infrastructure segment by $754 million, or 40%, and in our Communications segment by $683 million, or 27%, whereas revenue decreased in our Oil and Gas segment by $1,321 million, or 52%. Acquisitions contributed $2,990 million in increased revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 and organic revenue decreased by approximately $1,164 million, or 14.6%, as compared with 2021.
Communications Segment. Communications revenue was $3,234 million in 2022, as compared with $2,551 million in 2021, an increase of $683 million, or 27%. Acquisitions contributed $151 million of increased revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 and organic revenue increased by approximately $531 million, or 21%, as compared with 2021. The increase in organic revenue was driven primarily by higher levels of wireless and wireline project activity.
Clean Energy and Infrastructure Segment. Clean Energy and Infrastructure revenue was $2,619 million in 2022, as compared with $1,865 million in 2021, an increase of $754 million, or 40%. For the year ended December 31, 2022, acquisitions contributed $621 million of increased revenue, and organic revenue increased by approximately $133 million, or 7% as compared with 2021, due primarily to higher levels of project activity and mix.
Oil and Gas Segment. Oil and Gas revenue was $1,220 million in 2022, as compared with $2,541 million in 2021, a decrease of approximately $1,321 million, or 52%. Organic revenue decreased by approximately $1,764 million, or 69%, as compared with 2021, and acquisitions contributed $443 million of increased revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease in organic revenue was primarily due to a decrease in large diameter project activity, as well as lower levels of activity for other types of projects.
Power Delivery Segment. Power Delivery revenue was $2,725 million in 2022, as compared with $1,017 million in 2021, an increase of $1,708 million, or 168%. Acquisitions contributed $1,775 million of increased revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022, whereas organic revenue decreased by approximately $67 million, or 7%, as compared with 2021, due primarily to project timing and mix of project activity.
Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization. Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization, increased by approximately $1,781 million, or 26%, to $8,586 million in 2022 from $6,806 million in 2021. Higher levels of revenue contributed an increase of $1,563 million in costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization, and reduced productivity contributed an increase of approximately $218 million. Costs of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization, as a percentage of revenue increased by approximately 220 basis points, from 85.6% of revenue in 2021 to approximately 87.8% of revenue in 2022. The basis point increase was primarily due to segment revenue mix, including lower levels of revenue for our oil and gas operations, and also includes the effects of inflation on labor, fuel and materials costs for our projects, other project inefficiencies, certain acquisition and integration costs and project start-up costs, offset, in part, by project efficiencies in our power delivery operations.
Depreciation. Depreciation was $371 million, or 3.8% of revenue, in 2022, as compared with $346 million, or 4.3% of revenue in 2021, an increase of $26 million, or 7%. Acquisitions contributed $110 million of depreciation for the year ended December 31, 2022, whereas organic depreciation decreased by $85 million, or approximately 24%, due primarily to lower levels of capital investments related to pipeline project activity. As a percentage of revenue, depreciation decreased by approximately 50 basis points, due primarily to higher levels of revenue.
Amortization of intangible assets. Amortization of intangible assets was $136 million, or 1.4% of revenue in 2022, as compared with $77 million, or 1.0% of revenue, for the same period in 2021, an increase of approximately $59 million, or 76%. Acquisitions contributed $75 million of intangible asset amortization for the year ended December 31, 2022, whereas organic amortization decreased by approximately $16 million, or 21%, due primarily to the effects of timing of amortization for certain intangible assets. As a percentage of revenue, amortization of intangible assets increased by approximately 40 basis points.
General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses were $559 million, or 5.7%, of revenue in 2022, as compared with $307 million, or 3.9% of revenue in 2021, an increase of $252 million, or 82%. Acquisitions, including certain acquisition and integration costs, contributed approximately $191 million of general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2022, and organic general and administrative expenses, inclusive of certain acquisition and integration costs, increased by approximately $62 million, or 20%, as compared with 2021. The increase in organic general and administrative costs was due primarily to the effect of prior year recoveries of provisions for credit losses and increases in travel expense, professional fees, information technology and other administrative expenses, as well as the effects of timing of legal and settlement matters, offset, in part, by an increase in gains on sales of assets, net, and a reduction in compensation expense. Overall, general and administrative expenses, including approximately $52 million of acquisition and integration costs, increased by approximately 190 basis points as a percentage of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared with 2021.
Interest expense, net. Interest expense, net of interest income, was $112 million, or 1.1% of revenue in 2022, as compared with $53 million, or 0.7% of revenue in 2021, for an increase of approximately $59 million, or 110%. The increase in interest expense, net, related primarily to credit facility activity and term loans, which increased by $44 million due to higher average balances, including from indebtedness incurred in connection with acquisition and share repurchase activity, as well as higher average interest rates as compared with the same period in 2021, due primarily to higher market interest rates. In addition, interest expense from senior notes increased by $5 million due to the assumption, exchange and issuance of an aggregate principal amount of $300 million of 6.625% senior notes in connection with the fourth quarter 2022 acquisition of IEA. See Note 7 - Debt in the notes to the consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference, for details of the IEA 6.625% senior notes and related debt exchange transaction. In addition, interest expense from accounts receivable financing arrangements increased by approximately $6 million due to a combination of higher average balances from increased levels of activity and higher average interest rates.
Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates. Equity in earnings or losses of unconsolidated affiliates includes our share of income or losses from equity investees. For the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, equity in earnings from unconsolidated affiliates, net totaled $29 million
and $34 million, respectively, and related primarily to our investments in the Waha JVs, offset, in part, by equity in losses, net, from our investments in certain other entities.
Other income, net. Other income, net, was $1 million in 2022, as compared with other income, net, of $33 million in 2021. For the year ended December 31, 2022, other income, net, included approximately $1 million of income, net, from changes to estimated Earn-out accruals, $2 million of income from changes in the fair value of additional contingent payments to the former owners of an acquired business, $7 million of income from insurance and other settlements, and approximately $5 million of other miscellaneous income, net, offset, in part, by approximately $7 million of expense from changes in the fair value of our investment in AVCT, net of income from strategic arrangements, $3 million of expense from changes in the fair value of IEA warrants and $5 million of acquisition and integration and business streamlining costs. For the year ended December 31, 2021, other income, net, included approximately $28 million of income, net, from changes to estimated Earn-out accruals, approximately $3 million of bargain purchase gain from a 2021 acquisition and approximately $7 million of income from legal settlements, offset, in part, by $7 million of expense from changes in the fair value of certain assets and investments, net of income from strategic arrangements.
Provision for income taxes. Income tax expense was $9 million in 2022, as compared with $99 million of income tax expense in 2021. Pre-tax income decreased to $43 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 from $430 million in 2021. For the year ended December 31, 2022, our effective tax rate decreased to 21.3% from 23.1% in 2021. Our effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2022 included benefits from adjustments related to the finalization of our 2021 tax returns and from the true-up of certain prior year non-deductible expenses, as well as a benefit related to the vesting of share-based payment awards. For the year ended December 31, 2021, our effective tax rate included a benefit from adjustments related to the finalization of our 2020 tax returns and from the settlement of our 2016 and 2017 IRS examinations, as well as a benefit from share-based compensation.
Analysis of EBITDA by Segment
Communications Segment. EBITDA for our Communications segment was $327 million, or 10.1% of revenue, in 2022, as compared with $270 million, or 10.6% of revenue in 2021, for an increase in EBITDA of approximately $58 million, or 21%. Higher levels of revenue contributed an increase in EBITDA of approximately $72 million. As a percentage of revenue, EBITDA decreased by approximately 40 basis points, or $14 million, due primarily to project timing delays and inefficiencies, including the effects of inflation on labor, fuel and material costs, as well as the effects of project start-up and acquisition and integration costs.
Clean Energy and Infrastructure Segment. EBITDA for our Clean Energy and Infrastructure segment was $103 million, or 3.9% of revenue, in 2022, as compared with $75 million, or 4.0% of revenue in 2021, for an increase in EBITDA of approximately $28 million, or 37%. Higher levels of revenue contributed an increase in EBITDA of approximately $30 million. As a percentage of revenue, EBITDA decreased by approximately 10 basis points, or $2 million, due to project inefficiencies, including the effects of inflation on labor, fuel and material costs, as well as the effects of project timing delays and acquisition and integration costs, and mix.
Oil and Gas Segment. EBITDA for our Oil and Gas segment was $164 million, or 13.4% of revenue in 2022, as compared with $558 million, or 21.9% of revenue in 2021, a decrease of approximately $394 million, or 71%. Lower levels of revenue contributed a decrease in EBITDA of $290 million and reduced productivity contributed a decrease of approximately $104 million. EBITDA margins decreased by approximately 850 basis points, due primarily to reduced efficiencies from lower levels of revenue, as well as the effects of inflation on labor, fuel and material costs and acquisition and integration costs.
Power Delivery Segment. EBITDA for our Power Delivery segment was approximately $203 million, or 7.4% of revenue in 2022, as compared with $68 million, or 6.7% of revenue in 2021, an increase in EBITDA of approximately $135 million, or 199%. Higher levels of revenue contributed an increase in EBITDA of approximately $114 million. As a percentage of revenue, EBITDA increased by approximately 80 basis points, or $21 million, primarily due to project efficiencies resulting from higher levels of revenue and project mix, partially offset by the effects of inflation on labor, fuel and material costs as well as acquisition and integration costs.
Other Segment. EBITDA from Other businesses totaled $32 million and $34 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, and related primarily to equity in earnings from our investments in the Waha JVs and, in 2022, project gains from a proportionately consolidated non-controlled joint venture, offset, in part, by equity in losses from other investments.
Corporate. Corporate EBITDA was negative $166 million in 2022 as compared with EBITDA of negative $98 million in 2021, for a decrease in EBITDA of approximately $68 million. Acquisitions, including certain acquisition and integration costs, contributed approximately $33 million of Corporate expenses for the year ended December 31, 2022. Corporate EBITDA in 2022 also included approximately $7 million of expense from changes in the fair value of certain investments, net of income from strategic arrangements, $3 million of expense from changes in the fair value of IEA warrants, offset, in part, by $2 million of income from changes in the fair value of additional contingent payments to the former owners of an acquired business and $1 million of income, net, from changes to estimated Earn-out accruals. Corporate EBITDA in 2021 included approximately $28 million of income, net, from changes to estimated Earn-out accruals and a bargain purchase gain of approximately $3 million from a 2021 acquisition, offset, in part, by approximately $7 million of expense from changes in the fair value of certain investments, net of income from strategic arrangements. Corporate expenses in 2022 not related to the above-described items increased by approximately $4 million as compared with 2021, due primarily to acquisition and integration costs, increases in information technology, travel and other administrative expenses, offset, in part, by the effects of timing of legal and settlement matters.
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020
Refer to Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020” of the Company’s 2021 Annual Report on Form 10-K (“the 2021 Form 10-K”) for a comparison of results for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, which discussion is incorporated herein by reference.
Our foreign operations are primarily in Canada and, to a far lesser extent, in Mexico, the Caribbean and India. See Note 13 - Segments and Related Information in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated by reference.
Non-U.S. GAAP Financial Measures
As appropriate, we supplement our reported U.S. GAAP financial information with certain non-U.S. GAAP financial measures, including earnings before interest, income taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”), adjusted EBITDA (“Adjusted EBITDA”), adjusted net income (“Adjusted Net Income”) and adjusted diluted earnings per share (“Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share”). These “adjusted” non-U.S. GAAP measures exclude, as applicable to the particular periods, non-cash stock-based compensation expense; acquisition and integration costs related to our 2022 and 2021 acquisitions; fair value gains or losses, net, on an investment; project results from a proportionately consolidated non-controlled Canadian joint venture that was underway at the time of acquisition of the Canadian business, which joint venture was managed by a third party and automatically terminated upon completion of the project; the bargain purchase gain from a 2021 acquisition; and the loss on debt extinguishment from the redemption of our 4.875% Senior Notes; and, for Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share, amortization of intangible assets, the effects of changes in statutory tax rates and the tax effects of the adjusted items. These definitions of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are not the same as in our Credit Facility or in the indenture governing our senior notes; therefore, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA as presented in this discussion should not be used for purposes of determining our compliance with the covenants contained in our debt instruments.
We use EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA, as well as Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share to evaluate our performance, both internally and as compared with our peers, because these measures exclude certain items that may not be indicative of our core operating results, as well as items that can vary widely across different industries or among companies within the same industry. We believe that these adjusted measures provide a baseline for analyzing trends in our underlying business. Non-cash stock-based compensation expense can be subject to volatility from changes in the market price per share of our common stock or variations in the value and number of shares granted, and amortization of intangible assets is subject to acquisition activity, which varies from period to period. In 2021, we initiated a significant transformation of our end-market business operations to position the company for expected future opportunities. This transformation has included significant acquisition activity to expand our scale and capacity in renewable energy, power delivery and heavy civil services, and has resulted in significant acquisition and integration costs. Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2021, due to the extent of the acquisition costs related to these recent acquisitions and the extent of the integration efforts that have been, and will continue to be, required in connection with such acquisitions, we are excluding acquisition and integration costs in calculating Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Net Income for these acquisitions.
In addition, beginning in the second quarter of 2022, we are excluding fair value gains or losses, net, for our investment in AVCT, a company in which we currently have no active involvement, in calculating our adjusted results, and prior periods have been updated to conform with this presentation. We believe that fair value gains or losses for this investment, which vary from period to period based on fluctuations in the market price of the investment, are not indicative of our core operations, and that this presentation improves comparability of our results with those of our peers. We exclude intangible asset amortization, acquisition costs and selected purchase accounting adjustments, including the bargain purchase gain from a 2021 acquisition, from our adjusted measures due to their non-operational nature and inherent volatility, as acquisition activity varies from period to period. We also believe that this presentation is common practice in our industry and improves comparability of our results with those of our peers. Each company’s definitions of these adjusted measures may vary as they are not standardized and should be used in light of the provided reconciliations.
We believe that these non-U.S. GAAP financial measures provide meaningful information and help investors understand our financial results and assess our prospects for future performance. Because non-U.S. GAAP financial measures are not standardized, it may not be possible to compare these financial measures with other companies’ non-U.S. GAAP financial measures having the same or similar names. These financial measures should not be considered in isolation from, as substitutes for, or alternative measures of, reported net income or diluted earnings per share, and should be viewed in conjunction with the most comparable U.S. GAAP financial measures and the provided reconciliations thereto. We believe these non-U.S. GAAP financial measures, when viewed together with our U.S. GAAP results and related reconciliations, provide a more complete understanding of our business. We strongly encourage investors to review our consolidated financial statements and publicly filed reports in their entirety and not rely on any single financial measure.
The following table presents a reconciliation of net income to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA in dollar and percentage of revenue terms, for the periods indicated. The tables below (dollar amounts in millions) may contain slight summation differences due to rounding.
|For the Years Ended December 31,|
|Net income||$||33.9 ||0.3 ||%||$||330.7 ||4.2 ||%||$||322.7 ||5.1 ||%|
|Interest expense, net||112.3 ||1.1 ||%||53.4 ||0.7 ||%||59.6 ||0.9 ||%|
|Provision for income taxes||9.2 ||0.1 ||%||99.3 ||1.2 ||%||102.5 ||1.6 ||%|
|Depreciation||371.2 ||3.8 ||%||345.6 ||4.3 ||%||258.8 ||4.1 ||%|
|Amortization of intangible assets||135.9 ||1.4 ||%||77.2 ||1.0 ||%||38.9 ||0.6 ||%|
|EBITDA||$||662.5 ||6.8 ||%||$||906.3 ||11.4 ||%||$||782.5 ||12.4 ||%|
|Non-cash stock-based compensation expense||27.4 ||0.3 ||%||24.8 ||0.3 ||%||21.9 ||0.3 ||%|
|Acquisition and integration costs||86.0 ||0.9 ||%||3.6 ||0.0 ||%||— ||— ||%|
|Losses (gains), net, on fair value of investment||7.7 ||0.1 |